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The CPUID opcode is a processor supplementary instruction (its name derived from CPU IDentification) for the x86 architecture allowing software to discover details of the processor. It was introduced by Intel in 1993 when it introduced the Pentium and SL-enhanced 486 processors.[1]
By using the CPUID opcode, software can determine processor type and the presence of features (like MMX/SSE). The CPUID opcode is 0Fh, A2h (as two bytes, or 0FA2h as a single word) and the value in the EAX register, and in some cases the ECX register, specifies what information to return.


Prior to the general availability of the CPUID instruction, programmers would write esoteric machine code which exploited minor differences in CPU behavior in order to determine the processor make and model.[2][3]
Outside the x86 family, developers are mostly still required to use esoteric processes to determine the variations in CPU design that are present. While the CPUID instruction is specific to the x86 architecture, other architectures (like ARM) often provide on-chip registers which can be read to obtain the same sorts of information provided by this instruction.

Calling CPUID[edit]

In assembly language the CPUID instruction takes no parameters as CPUID implicitly uses the EAX register to determine the main category of information returned. In Intel's more recent terminology, this is called the CPUID leaf. CPUID should be called with EAX = 0 first, as this will return in the EAX register the highest EAX calling parameter (leaf) that the CPU supports.
To obtain extended function information CPUID should be called with the most significant bit of EAX set. To determine the highest extended function calling parameter, callCPUID with EAX = 80000000h.
CPUID leaves greater than 3 but less than 80000000 are accessible only when the model-specific registers have IA32_MISC_ENABLE.BOOT_NT4 [bit 22] = 0 (which is so by default). As the name suggests, Windows NT4 did not boot properly unless this bit was set,[4] but later versions of Windows do not need it, so basic leaves greater than 4 can be assumed visible on current Windows systems. As of July 2014, basic valid leaves go up to 14h, but the information returned by some leaves are not disclosed in publicly available documentation, i.e. they are "reserved".
Some of the more recently added leaves also have sub-leaves, which are selected via the ECX register before calling CPUID.

EAX=0: Highest Function Parameter[edit]

Here is a list of processors and the highest function supported.
Highest Function Parameter
Earlier Intel 486CPUID Not Implemented
Later Intel 486 and Pentium0x01Not Implemented
Pentium Pro, Pentium II and Celeron0x02Not Implemented
Pentium III0x03Not Implemented
Pentium 40x020x8000 0004
Xeon0x020x8000 0004
Pentium M0x020x8000 0004
Pentium 4 with Hyper-Threading0x050x8000 0008
Pentium D (8xx)0x050x8000 0008
Pentium D (9xx)0x060x8000 0008
Core Duo0x0A0x8000 0008
Core 2 Duo0x0A0x8000 0008
Xeon 3000, 5100, 5200, 5300, 5400 series0x0A0x8000 0008
Core 2 Duo 8000 series0x0D0x8000 0008
Xeon 5200, 5400 series0x0A0x8000 0008
Atom0x0A0x8000 0008
Core i7[which?]0x0B0x8000 0008

EAX=0: Get vendor ID[edit]

This returns the CPU's manufacturer ID string – a twelve-character ASCII string stored in EBX, EDX, ECX (in that order). The highest basic calling parameter (largest value that EAX can be set to before calling CPUID) is returned in EAX.
The following are known processor manufacturer ID strings:
For instance, on a GenuineIntel processor values returned in EBX is 0x756e6547, EDX is 0x49656e69 and ECX is 0x6c65746e. The following code is written in GNU Assemblerfor the x86-64 architecture and displays the vendor ID string as well as the highest calling parameter that the CPU supports.
 .asciz "Largest basic function number supported: %i\n"
 .asciz "Vendor ID: %.12s\n"
 .align 32
 .globl _start
 pushq %rbp
        pushq   %rbx
 movq %rsp,%rbp
 subq $16,%rsp
 xorl %eax,%eax
 movl %ebx,0(%rsp)
 movl %edx,4(%rsp)
 movl %ecx,8(%rsp)
 movq $s0,%rdi
 movl %eax,%esi
 xorb %al,%al
 call printf
 movq $s1,%rdi
 movq %rsp,%rsi
 xorb %al,%al
 call printf
 movq %rbp,%rsp
        popq    %rbx
 popq %rbp
 movl    $1,%eax
        int     $0x80

EAX=1: Processor Info and Feature Bits[edit]

This returns the CPU's stepping, model, and family information in EAX (also called the signature of a CPU), feature flags in EDX and ECX, and additional feature info in EBX.
The format of the information in EAX is as follows:
  • 3:0 – Stepping
  • 7:4 – Model
  • 11:8 – Family
  • 13:12 – Processor Type
  • 19:16 – Extended Model
  • 27:20 – Extended Family
Intel and AMD have suggested applications to display the family of a CPU as the sum of the "Family" and the "Extended Family" fields shown above, and the model as the sum of the "Model" and the 4-bit left-shifted "Extended Model" fields.[5] If "Family" is lower than 15, only the "Family" and "Model" fields should be used while the "Extended Family" and "Extended Model" bits are reserved. If "Family" is set to 15, then "Extended Family" and the 4-bit left-shifted "Extended Model" should be added to the respective base values.[6][7]
The processor info and feature flags are manufacturer specific but usually the Intel values are used by other manufacturers for the sake of compatibility.
As of January 2011, the standard Intel feature flags are as follows[8][9]
EAX=1 CPUID feature bits
0fpuOnboard x87 FPUsse3Prescott New Instructions-SSE3 (PNI)
1vmeVirtual 8086 mode extensions (such as VIF, VIP, PIV)pclmulqdqPCLMULQDQ support
2deDebugging extensions (CR4 bit 3)dtes6464-bit debug store (edx bit 21)
3psePage Size ExtensionmonitorMONITOR and MWAIT instructions (SSE3)
4tscTime Stamp Counterds-cplCPL qualified debug store
5msrModel-specific registersvmxVirtual Machine eXtensions
6paePhysical Address ExtensionsmxSafer Mode Extensions (LaGrande)
7mceMachine Check ExceptionestEnhanced SpeedStep
8cx8CMPXCHG8 (compare-and-swap) instructiontm2Thermal Monitor 2
9apicOnboard Advanced Programmable Interrupt Controllerssse3Supplemental SSE3 instructions
10(reserved)cnxt-idL1 Context ID
11sepSYSENTER and SYSEXIT instructions(reserved)
12mtrrMemory Type Range RegistersfmaFused multiply-add (FMA3)
13pgePage Global Enable bit in CR4cx16CMPXCHG16B instruction
14mcaMachine check architecturextprCan disable sending task priority messages
15cmovConditional move and FCMOV instructionspdcmPerfmon & debug capability
16patPage Attribute Table(reserved)
17pse-3636-bit page size extensionpcidProcess context identifiers (CR4 bit 17)
18psnProcessor Serial NumberdcaDirect cache access for DMA writes[10][11]
19clfshCLFLUSH instruction (SSE2)sse4.1SSE4.1 instructions
20(reserved)sse4.2SSE4.2 instructions
21dsDebug store: save trace of executed jumpsx2apicx2APIC support
22acpiOnboard thermal control MSRs for ACPImovbeMOVBE instruction (big-endian)
23mmxMMX instructionspopcntPOPCNT instruction
24fxsrFXSAVE, FXRESTOR instructions, CR4 bit 9tsc-deadlineAPIC supports one-shot operation using a TSC deadline value
25sseSSE instructions (a.k.a. Katmai New Instructions)aesAES instruction set
26sse2SSE2 instructionsxsaveXSAVE, XRESTOR, XSETBV, XGETBV
27ssCPU cache supports self-snooposxsaveXSAVE enabled by OS
28httHyper-threadingavxAdvanced Vector Extensions
29tmThermal monitor automatically limits temperaturef16cF16C (half-precision) FP support
30ia64IA64 processor emulating x86rdrndRDRAND (on-chip random number generator) support
31pbePending Break Enable (PBE# pin) wakeup supporthypervisorRunning on a hypervisor (always 0 on a real CPU, but also with some hypervisors)

EAX=2: Cache and TLB Descriptor information[edit]

This returns a list of descriptors indicating cache and TLB capabilities in EAX, EBX, ECX and EDX registers.

EAX=3: Processor Serial Number[edit]

This returns the processor's serial number. The processor serial number was introduced on Intel Pentium III, but due to privacy concerns, this feature is no longer implemented on later models (PSN feature bit is always cleared). Transmeta's Efficeon and Crusoe processors also provide this feature. AMD CPUs however, do not implement this feature in any CPU models.
For Intel Pentium III CPUs, the serial number is returned in EDX:ECX registers. For Transmeta Efficeon CPUs, it is returned in EBX:EAX registers. And for Transmeta Crusoe CPUs, it is returned in EBX register only.
Note that the processor serial number feature must be enabled in the BIOS setting in order to function.

EAX=4 and EAX=Bh: Intel thread/core and cache topology[edit]

These two leaves are used for processor topology (thread, core, package) and cache hierarchy enumeration in Intel multi-core (and hyperthreaded) processors.[12] As of 2013AMD does not use these leaves but has alternate ways of doing the core enumeration.[13]
Unlike most other CPUID leaves, leaf Bh will return different values in EDX depending on which logical processor the CPUID instruction runs; the value returned in EDX is actually the x2APIC id of the logical processor. The x2APIC id space is not continuously mapped to logical processors however; there can be gaps in the mapping, meaning that some intermediate x2APIC ids don't necessarily correspond to any logical processor. Additional information for mapping the x2APIC ids to cores is provided in the other registers. Although the leaf Bh has sub-leaves (selected by ECX as described further below), the value returned in EDX is only affected by the core on which the instruction is running but not by the subleaf.
The processor(s) topology exposed by leaf Bh is a hierarchical one, but with the strange caveat that the order of (logical) levels in this hierarchy doesn't necessarily correspond the order in the physical hierarchy (SMT/core/package). However, every logical level can be queried as an ECX subleaf (of the Bh leaf) for its correspondence to a "level type", which can be either SMT, core, or "invalid". The level id space starts at 0 and is continuous, meaning that if a level id is invalid, all higher level ids will also be invalid. The level type is returned in bits 15:08 of ECX, while the number of logical processors at the level queried is returned in EBX. Finally, the connection between these levels and x2APIC ids is returned in EAX[4:0] as the number of bits that the x2APIC id must be shifted in order to obtain a unique id at the next level.
As an example, a dual-core Westmere processor capable of hyperthreading (thus having two cores and four threads in total) could have x2APIC ids 0, 1, 4 and 5 for its four logical processors. Leaf Bh (=EAX), subleaf 0 (=ECX) of CPUID could for instance return 100h in ECX, meaning that level 0 describes the SMT (hyperthreading) layer, and return 2 in EBX because there are two logical processors (SMT units) per physical core. The value returned in EAX for this 0-subleaf should be 1 in this case, because shifting the aforementioned x2APIC ids to the right by one bit gives a unique core number (at the next level of the level id hierarchy) and erases the SMT id bit inside each core. A simpler way to interpret this information is that the last bit (bit number 0) of the x2APIC id identifies the SMT/hyperthreading unit inside each core in our example. Advancing to subleaf 1 (by making another call to CPUID with EAX=Bh and ECX=1) could for instance return 201h in ECX, meaning that this is a core-type level, and 4 in EBX because there are 4 logical processors in the package; EAX returned could be any value greater than 3, because it so happens that bit number 2 is used to identify the core in the x2APIC id. Note that bit number 1 of the x2APIC id is not used in this example. However EAX returned at this level could well be 4 (and it happens to be so on a Clarkdale Core i3 5x0) because that also gives a unique id at the package level (=0 obviusly) when shifting the x2APIC id by 4 bits. Finally, you may wonder what the EAX=4 leaf can tell us that we didn't find out already. In EAX[31:26] it returns the APIC mask bits reserved for a package; that would be 111b in our example because bits 0 to 2 are used for identifying logical processors inside this package, but bit 1 is also reserved although not used as part of the logical processor identification scheme. In other words, APIC ids 0 to 7 are reserved for the package, even though half of these values don't map to a logical processor.
The cache hierarchy of the processor is explored by looking at the sub-leaves of leaf 4. The APIC ids are also used in this hierarchy to convey information about how the different levels of cache are shared by the SMT units and cores. To continue our example, the L2 cache, which is shared by SMT units of the same core but not between physical cores on the Westmere is indicated by EAX[26:14] being set to 1, while the information that the L3 cache is shared by the whole package is indicated by setting those bits to (at least) 111b. The cache details, including cache type, size, and associativity are communicated via the other registers on leaf 4.
Beware that older versions of the Intel app note 485 contain some misleading information, particularly with respect to identifying and counting cores in a multi-core processor;[14]errors from misinterpreting this information have even been incorporated in the Microsoft sample code for using cpuid, even for the 2013 edition of Visual Studio,[15] and also in the page for CPUID,[16] but the Intel code sample for identifying processor topology[12] has the correct interpretation, and the current Intel Software Developer’s Manual has more clear language. The (open source) cross-platform production code[17] from Wildfire Games also implements the correct interpretation of the Intel documentation.
Topology detection examples involving older (pre-2010) Intel processors that lack x2APIC (thus don't support the EAX=Bh leaf) are given in a 2010 Intel presentation.[18] Beware that using that older detection method on 2010 and newer Intel processors may overestimate the number of cores and logical processors because the old detection method assumes there are no gaps in the APIC id space, and this assumption is violated by some newer processors (starting with the Core i3 5x0 series), but these newer processors also come with an x2APIC, so their topology can be correctly determined using the EAX=Bh leaf method.

EAX=7, ECX=0: Extended Features[edit]

This returns extended feature flags in EBX and ECX.
EAX=7 CPUID feature bits
0fsgsbaseAccess to base of %fs and %gsprefetchwt1PREFETCHWT1 instruction
1(reserved)avx512vbmiAVX-512 Vector Bit Manipulation Instructions
3bmi1Bit Manipulation Instruction Set 1(reserved)
4hleTransactional Synchronization Extensions(reserved)
5avx2Advanced Vector Extensions 2(reserved)
7smepSupervisor-Mode Execution Prevention(reserved)
8bmi2Bit Manipulation Instruction Set 2(reserved)
9ermsEnhanced REP MOVSB/STOSB(reserved)
10invpcidINVPCID instruction(reserved)
11rtmTransactional Synchronization Extensions(reserved)
14mpxIntel MPX (Memory Protection Extensions)(reserved)
16avx512fAVX-512 Foundation(reserved)
17avx512dqAVX-512 Doubleword and Quadword Instructions(reserved)
18rdseedRDSEED instruction(reserved)
19adxIntel ADX (Multi-Precision Add-Carry Instruction Extensions)(reserved)
20smapSupervisor Mode Access Prevention(reserved)
21avx512ifmaAVX-512 Integer Fused Multiply-Add Instructions(reserved)
22pcommitPCOMMIT instruction(reserved)
23clflushoptCLFLUSHOPT instruction(reserved)
24clwbCLWB instruction(reserved)
25Intel Processor Trace(reserved)
26avx512pfAVX-512 Prefetch Instructions(reserved)
27avx512erAVX-512 Exponential and Reciprocal Instructions(reserved)
28avx512cdAVX-512 Conflict Detection Instructions(reserved)
29shaIntel SHA extensions(reserved)
30avx512bwAVX-512 Byte and Word Instructions(reserved)
31avx512vlAVX-512 Vector Length Extensions(reserved)

EAX=80000000h: Get Highest Extended Function Supported[edit]

The highest calling parameter is returned in EAX.

EAX=80000001h: Extended Processor Info and Feature Bits[edit]

This returns extended feature flags in EDX and ECX.
AMD feature flags are as follows[19][20]
EAX=80000001h CPUID feature bits
0fpuOnboard x87 FPUlahf_lmLAHF/SAHF in long mode
1vmeVirtual mode extensions (VIF)cmp_legacyHyperthreading not valid
2deDebugging extensions (CR4 bit 3)svmSecure Virtual Machine
3psePage Size ExtensionextapicExtended APIC space
4tscTime Stamp Countercr8_legacyCR8 in 32-bit mode
5msrModel-specific registersabmAdvanced bit manipulation (lzcnt and popcnt)
6paePhysical Address Extensionsse4aSSE4a
7mceMachine Check ExceptionmisalignsseMisaligned SSE mode
8cx8CMPXCHG8 (compare-and-swap) instruction3dnowprefetchPREFETCH and PREFETCHW instructions
9apicOnboard Advanced Programmable Interrupt ControllerosvwOS Visible Workaround
10(reserved)ibsInstruction Based Sampling
11syscallSYSCALL and SYSRET instructionsxopXOP instruction set
12mtrrMemory Type Range RegistersskinitSKINIT/STGI instructions
13pgePage Global Enable bit in CR4wdtWatchdog timer
14mcaMachine check architecture(reserved)
15cmovConditional move and FCMOV instructionslwpLight Weight Profiling[21]
16patPage Attribute Tablefma44 operands fused multiply-add
17pse3636-bit page size extensiontceTranslation Cache Extension
19mpMultiprocessor Capablenodeid_msrNodeID MSR
20nxNX bit(reserved)
21(reserved)tbmTrailing Bit Manipulation
22mmxextExtended MMXtopoextTopology Extensions
23mmxMMX instructionsperfctr_coreCore performance counter extensions
24fxsrFXSAVE, FXRSTOR instructions, CR4 bit 9perfctr_nbNB performance counter extensions
25fxsr_optFXSAVE/FXRSTOR optimizations(reserved)
26pdpe1gbGibibyte pagesdbxData breakpoint extensions
27rdtscpRDTSCP instructionperftscPerformance TSC
28(reserved)pcx_l2iL2I perf counter extensions
29lmLong mode(reserved)
303dnowextExtended 3DNow!(reserved)

EAX=80000002h,80000003h,80000004h: Processor Brand String[edit]

These return the processor brand string in EAX, EBX, ECX and EDX. CPUID must be issued with each parameter in sequence to get the entire 48-byte null-terminated ASCII processor brand string.[5] It is necessary to check whether the feature is supported by the CPU by issuing CPUID with EAX = 80000000h first and checking if the returned value is greater or equal to 80000004h.
.section .data
s0 : .asciz "Processor Brand String: %.48s\n"
err : .asciz "Feature unsupported.\n"
.section .text
.global main
.type main,@function
.align 32
 pushq %rbp
 movq %rsp, %rbp
 subq $48, %rsp
 pushq %rbx
 movl $0x80000000, %eax
 cmpl $0x80000004, %eax
 jl error
 movl $0x80000002, %esi
 movq %rsp, %rdi
.align 16
 movl %esi, %eax
 movl %eax, (%rdi)
 movl %ebx, 4(%rdi)
 movl %ecx, 8(%rdi)
 movl %edx, 12(%rdi)
 addl $1, %esi
 addq $16, %rdi
 cmpl $0x80000004, %esi
 jle get_brand
 movq $s0, %rdi
 movq %rsp, %rsi
 xorb %al, %al
 call printf
 jmp end
.align 16
 movq $err, %rdi
 xorb %al, %al
 call printf
.align 16
 popq %rbx
 movq %rbp, %rsp
 popq %rbp
 xorl %eax, %eax

EAX=80000005h: L1 Cache and TLB Identifiers[edit]

This function contains the processor’s L1 cache and TLB characteristics.

EAX=80000006h: Extended L2 Cache Features[edit]

Returns details of the L2 cache in ECX, including the line size in bytes, type of associativity (encoded by a 4 bits) and the cache size.
.section .data
info : .ascii "L2 Cache Size : %u KB\nLine size : %u bytes\n"
.asciz "Associativity : %02xh\n"
err : .asciz "Feature unsupported.\n"
.section .text
.global main
.type main,@function
.align 32
 pushq %rbp
 movq %rsp, %rbp
 pushq %rbx
 movl $0x80000000, %eax
 cmpl $0x80000006, %eax
 jl error
 movl $0x80000006, %eax
 movl %ecx, %eax
 movl %eax, %edx
 andl $0xff, %edx
 movl %eax, %ecx
 shrl $12, %ecx
 andl $0xf, %ecx
 movl %eax, %esi
 shrl $16, %esi
 andl $0xffff,%esi
 movq $info, %rdi
 xorb %al, %al
 call printf
 jmp end
.align 16
 movq $err, %rdi
 xorb %al, %al
 call printf
.align 16
 popq %rbx
 movq %rbp, %rsp
 popq %rbp
 xorl %eax, %eax

EAX=80000007h: Advanced Power Management Information[edit]

This function provides advanced power management feature identifiers.

EAX=80000008h: Virtual and Physical address Sizes[edit]

Returns largest virtual and physical address sizes in EAX.

CPUID usage from high-level languages[edit]

This information is easy to access from other languages as well. For instance, the C++ code for gcc below prints the first five values, returned by the cpuid:
int main()
  int a, b;
  for (a = 0; a < 5; a++)
            :"=a"(b)                 // EAX into b (output)
            :"0"(a)                  // a into EAX (input)
            :"%ebx","%ecx","%edx");  // clobbered registers
    std::cout << "The code " << a << " gives " << b << std::endl;
  return 0;
The equivalent code in C is:
int main()
  int a, b;
  for (a = 0; a < 5; a++)
            :"=a"(b)                 // EAX into b (output)
            :"0"(a)                  // a into EAX (input)
            :"%ebx","%ecx","%edx");  // clobbered registers
    printf("The code %i gives %i\n", a, b);
  return 0;
Or, a generally useful C implementation that works on 32- and 64-bit systems:
int main() {
    int i;
    unsigned int index = 0;
    unsigned int regs[4];
    int sum;
    __asm__ __volatile__(
#if defined(__x86_64__) || defined(_M_AMD64) || defined (_M_X64)
        "pushq %%rbx     \n\t" /* save %rbx */
        "pushl %%ebx     \n\t" /* save %ebx */
        "cpuid            \n\t"
        "movl %%ebx ,%[ebx]  \n\t" /* write the result into output var */
#if defined(__x86_64__) || defined(_M_AMD64) || defined (_M_X64)
        "popq %%rbx \n\t"
        "popl %%ebx \n\t"
        : "=a"(regs[0]), [ebx] "=r"(regs[1]), "=c"(regs[2]), "=d"(regs[3])
        : "a"(index));
    for (i=4; i<8; i++) {
        printf("%c" ,((char *)regs)[i]);
    for (i=12; i<16; i++) {
        printf("%c" ,((char *)regs)[i]);
    for (i=8; i<12; i++) {
        printf("%c" ,((char *)regs)[i]);
Another version of that:
void cpuid(unsigned info, unsigned *eax, unsigned *ebx, unsigned *ecx, unsigned *edx)
        "cpuid;"                                            /* assembly code */
        :"=a" (*eax), "=b" (*ebx), "=c" (*ecx), "=d" (*edx) /* outputs */
        :"a" (info)                                         /* input: info into eax */
                                                            /* clobbers: none */
int main()
  unsigned int eax, ebx, ecx, edx;
  int i;
  for (i = 0; i < 6; ++i)
    cpuid(i, &eax, &ebx, &ecx, &edx);
    printf("eax=%i: %#010x %#010x %#010x %#010x\n", i, eax, ebx, ecx, edx);
  return 0;
Microsoft Visual C compiler has builtin function __cpuid() so cpuid instruction may be embedded without using inline assembly. This is handy since x64 version of MSVC doesn't allow inline assembly at all. The same program for MSVC would be:
int main()
  int b[4];
  for (int a = 0; a < 5; a++)
    __cpuid(b, a);
    std::cout << "The code " << a << " gives " << b[0] << std::endl;
  return 0;
For Borland/Embarcadero C compilers (bcc32), native asm function calls are necessary, as there is no asm() implementation. The pseudo code:
  unsigned int a, b, c, d;
  unsigned int InfoType = 0;
  __asm xor EBX, EBX;
  __asm xor ECX, ECX;
  __asm xor EDX, EDX;
  __asm mov EAX, InfoType;
  __asm cpuid;
  __asm mov a, EAX;
  __asm mov b, EBX;
  __asm mov c, ECX;
  __asm mov d, EDX;
Many interpreted or compiled scripting languages are capable of using CPUID via an FFI library. One such implementation shows usage of the Ruby FFI module to execute assembly language that includes the CPUID opcode.

CPU-specific information outside x86[edit]

Some of the non-x86 CPU architectures also provide certain forms of structured information about the processor's abilities, commonly as a set of special registers:
  • ARM architectures have a CPUID coprocessor register.[22]
  • The IBM System z mainframe processors support a Store CPU ID (STIDP) instruction since the 1983 IBM 4381[23] for querying the processor ID.[24]
  • The MIPS32 architecture defines a mandatory Processor Identification (PrId) and a series of daisy-chained Configuration Registers.[25]
  • The PowerPC processor has the 32-bit read-only PVR register identifying the processor modxel in use.[26]
DSP and transputer-like chip families have not taken up the instruction in any noticeable way, in spite of having (in relative terms) as many variations in design.

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