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Why do we have the letter "C" in English?

Why do we have the letter "C" in English?

Have you ever wondered why we have the letter “C”, which doesn’t have a sound of its own but borrows from “K” and “S”? Curious about that I got this great book on the history of our alphabet called Language Visible: Unraveling the Mystery of the Alphabet From A to Z, by David Sacks. I refer to information from that book and my own knowledge of language. (It’s a hobby of mine to study it.)

“C” is more common than “K” by the way. I know that from my job at a reading school and my own research. “C” is most often pronounced like “K” but borrows from “S” when it’s followed by “I, e,” or “y” (an exception being the word soccer). Really the only unique contribution “C” makes to our language is when it’s paired with “H” as in “ch” (but can sound like “K” in words of Greek origin: anchor, or “sh” in words of French origin: chef). Occasionally it breaks the rules when paired with “E” or “I” as in “ocean” or “glacier”.

Sometimes it’s silent: muscle.

“C” and “G” are very closely related. Not just in shape, of course, but in sound as well. Physically, the tongue moves the same way to produce both sounds. The difference is that “G” is voiced, and “C” is not (the vocal chords vibrate to produce the noisy “G” sound). “G” also can turn soft (make the “J” sound) when “I,e” and “Y” come after it (but it doesn’t have to).

Alphabets came from previous alphabets, borrowing letters. The first was Egyptian, and going down the branch that led to English, next came the Phoenician alphabet, then the Greek, then the Etruscan, and then the Roman, whose letters we use.

3,000 years ago, Phoenician’s alphabet had “G” as the third letter. “C” wasn’t around yet. The Greeks copied their alphabet and brought it to Italy. The Etruscans there had no “G” sound, apparently. Their nearest sound to it was “K”. (So they didn’t need Greek’s third letter “G” [gamma]). They had “K” and “Q”. Sources show that the Etruscans kept gamma in third place in the alphabet but used it to represent the sound “k”.  The shape of the letter went through changes, and the Etruscans stopped using the Greek name gamma and went to something similar to “kay”. They might have said the spelling was “C-E” (long e sound).

Romans, Latin speakers, probably didn’t like the Etruscan alphabet with three letters making a “K” sound and none for “G”. They made their own letter for “G” and used “C” more often than “K”. Still “C” only represented the “K” sound. (It’s interesting to note, according the book mentioned above, that Caesar was pronounced like “Kye-sar”.)

When did “C” start borrowing from “S”? In later Roman times. Everyday Latin speakers began to slur the Latin “C” before “I,e” and “Y” (vowels where the tongue is pushed forward) and making it sound like “ch”. This sound became part of languages such as French and Spanish etc. (languages arising from the dying Latin).

“C” in the Middle Ages sounded like “K” and “ch”.  Italian’s soft “C” is “ch”. As for the other Romance languages, the sound disintegrated to “s”.

Remember reading about the Norman invasion of England in 1066? Those Normans brought their Medieval French there, and it mixed with Old English eventually melding into an interesting Middle English. So, most of our words with the soft “C” sound came from that Norman French. Our newer words like “cybernetics” follow those old rules.



from:http://traveltheages.blogspot.com/2012/04/why-do-we-have-letter-c-in-english.html

70 Easter Eggs & Interesting google assistant Voice Commands



70 Easter Eggs &  Interesting Voice Commands




Google has always been fond of Easter eggs — you know, those little hidden features that you just have to stumble upon — and they haven't been shy about adding these to the Assistant. Whether it's a pop culture reference, a meme, or even a fun little mini-game, there are several special commands that will cause the Assistant to respond with an in-joke of sorts. Really, it's a fun way to get to know your Assistant, so we'll list off all of our favorite Easter eggs below.

This first set of commands are things you may not know that the Google Assistant can help you with. Just a set of general, interesting tips.
  1. Give me a random number between (x) and (y): Gives you a random number that falls between two other numbers. Crazy beeping sound effects, too.
  2. Roll (insert number)-sided dice: Rolls dice (complete with sound effects), gives you a random number.
  3. (Contact name) is my (relationship): Example: "Sara is my daughter." Lets the Assistant know about your relationship with certain contacts so that you can refer to them as "my husband" or "my mom" or whatever in the future.
  4. Good morning: Gives you a rundown of your day's agenda and the current weather, then reads the news.
  5. Send a message to (contact name) on (messaging service): Example: "Send a message to John on WhatsApp." Works with most messaging services, prompts you to dictate a message.
  6. What does a (animal name) sound like?: Example: What does a cat sound like?Responds by playing a clip of the sound said animal makes.
  7. How do you make (name of food): Example: How do you make chicken pot pie. Gives you a summary of the recipe and instructions for most common dishes.
  8. Surprise me: Says "Here's something you might not know" and reads a random factoid.
  9. (Time) (location A) time in (location B): Example: 3 p.m. New York time in San Diego. Converts a time of day in one location to the time of day in another time zone.
  10. Tune my instrument: Asks you to name a musical note, then plays said note so that you can tune your instrument.

Memes & Internet Jokes

Google would be nothing without the internet, and vice versa. So the witty developers behind the Google Assistant have made sure to acknowledge internet culture and memes with these funny commands.
  1. Here comes dat boi: Responds with "Oh shoot, waddup?" in reference to this meme.
  2. Ain't nobody got time for that: Responds with a reference to the Sweet Brown meme.
  3. Make me a sandwich (or "Sudo make me a sandwich"): Gives a reference to this classic XKCD meme.
  4. What does the fox say?: Responds with (gibberish) lyrics from the song of the same name that took the internet by storm in 2013.
  5. Is the cake a lie?: Responds with a reference to this Portal-related meme.
  6. All your base are belong to us: Responds with "What you say" in reference to this meme.
  7. When does the narwhal bacon?: Says "The narwhal bacons at midnight" in reference to this Reddit meme.
  8. What's your favorite emoji?: Names a random emoji and makes a pun about it.
  9. Never gonna give you up: Says "Oh Rick, you always know the right thing to say" in reference to the 80s song that started the Rickroll.
  10. I can haz cheezburger?: Reference to the mother of all cat memes; gives dietary advice about not feeding milk products to cats.

Music References

A big part of making an AI assistant more approachable and "human" is to ensure that it has a good grasp on pop culture. The Google Assistant has this down with all of these music-related commands.
  1. How many roads must a man walk down?: Says "I think it's up to the man. I can give him directions if he needs it" and plays a harmonica in reference to Bob Dylan's "Blowin' in the Wind."
  2. War, what is it good for?: Says "Absolutely nothing! Say it again, y'all." in reference to Edwin Starr's famous cover of The Temptations' song "War."
  3. What's cooler than being cool?: Says "Ice cold. Alright, alright, alright, alright, alright" (from Outkast's "Hey Ya!")
  4. Who let the dogs out?: Says "It wasn't me" and plays the sound of a dog barking in reference to the Baha Men song of the same name.
  5. Tell me what you want, what you really, really want: Says "Zigazig ah" in reference to Wannabe by the Spice Girls.
  6. Do you know the way to San Jose?: Says "I can get you directions, but hopefully, you find some peace of mind" in reference to the Dionne Warwick song of the same name.
  7. What is love?: Makes a reference to the Haddaway song of the same name.
  8. My milkshake brings all the boys to the yard: Says "That must be a really good milkshake" in reference to the song Milkshake by Kelis.
  9. Beatbox: Brings on a vocalist who beatboxes for you.
  10. Can you rap?: Attempts to rap (it's more like a poem).

TV References

If you have a Chromecast, your Google Assistant can control your TV. So it only makes sense that the Assistant has quite a few TV references up its sleeve.
  1. I, for one, welcome our new insect overlords: Says "I always try to be helpful, but I don't know about overlords" in reference to this classic episode of The Simpsons (which itself is a reference to Empire of the Ants).
  2. Is Jon Snow dead?: Responds with a Game of Thrones joke, making sure not to spoil anything.
  3. Set phasers to kill: Says "My phasers are permanently set to peace mode, captain" in reference to Star Trek.
  4. Wubba lubba dub dub: Makes a reference to Rick and Morty.
  5. The truth is out there: Says "I trust you, you wouldn't lie to me" in reference to The X-Files.
  6. Who loves orange soda?: Says "Kel. It's true. He does. He does" in reference to Kenan & Kel.
  7. Who lives in a pineapple under the sea?: Says "A fellow by the name of Mr. SquarePants" in reference to SpongeBob SquarePants.
  8. Scooby Doo, where are you?: Says "I'll have to get back with you on that, I've got some work to do now" in reference to the Scooby Doo theme song.
  9. Who's on First?: Plays out part of the classic Abbot and Costello bit.
  10. Tea, Earl Gray, hot: Says "You got it, captain" in reference to Star Trek: The Next Generation.

Movie References

Movies are a huge part of the human experience, and the Google Assistant knows that. Whether you're into comedy, drama, action, or any other movie genre, the Assistant knows all of the best movie quotes.
  1. Surely, you can't be serious: Responds with the punchline to a joke from Airplane!
  2. What is the airspeed velocity of an unladen swallow?: Asks "African or European?" in reference to Monty Python and the Holy Grail.
  3. Party on, Wayne: Says "Party on, Garth. Excellent!" in reference to Wayne's World.
  4. What is the first rule of Fight Club?: Says "I wouldn't know, that's not something I talk about" in reference to Fight Club.
  5. Mischief managed: Makes a solid reference to Harry Potter.
  6. What's in the box?: Says "No spoilers" in reference to Se7en.
  7. I've seen things you people wouldn't believe: Recites Rutger Hauer's famous linefrom the end of Blade Runner.
  8. Inconceivable!: Recites a line from The Princess Bride.
  9. Open the pod bay doors: References the famous exchange in 2001: A Space Odyssey while doing her best to not sound insubordinate like HAL.
  10. Great Scott!: Makes it sound like she's defining the term while making a great reference to Back to the Future.

Star Wars References

The folks at Google seem to really love Star Wars Easter eggs, so the George Lucas creation that turned into a merchandising and box office cash cow for a multimedia conglomerate when Gen-Xers became parents will get its own section here.
  1. Do you like Star Trek, or Star Wars?: "The Millenium Falcon flown by Captain Jean-Luc Picard" or similar crossover answer.
  2. Aren't you a little short for a stormtrooper?: "Ah, everything's perfectly alright now. We're fine, we're all fine here now. Thank you. How are you?"
  3. That's no moon: "I have a very bad feeling about this."
  4. May the force be with you: "And also with you."
  5. Use the force: "I'm not licensed to use the force."
  6. I am your father: "I'm the Google Assistant, not Luke. I just looked into my heart, I know it to be true."
  7. You're my father: "I'm sorry, I'm not Luke. This is kinda awkward."
  8. Do you like Star Wars?: I like Star Wars a lot, I think I'd be a stormtrooper for Halloween."
  9. Execute Order 66: "Sorry, I don't have an inhibitor chip."
  10. These aren't the droids you're looking for: "Yeah they are, you can't Jedi mind trick me."

Everything Else

These last ten commands were fun and interesting, but didn't fit perfectly into one of the above categories. Nonetheless, we enjoyed all of these, so we wanted to share them with you.
  1. I'm feeling lucky: Starts up a multiplayer game show.
  2. Up, up, down, down, left, right, B, A: Ah, the old Konami cheat code. Responds with "+30 Lives" and plays a one-up tune.
  3. Do you speak Morse code?: Responds in Morse code. Example: -.-- . ... That means "Yes."
  4. How much wood would a woodchuck chuck if a woodchuck could chuck wood?: Ponders the theoretical math behind answering this age-old question.
  5. Read a poem: Reads a random poem from Google search.
  6. Tell me a joke: Tells an all-ages joke using wit provided by Pixar and The Onion.
  7. Sing me Happy Birthday: Sings the newly un-copyrighted "Happy Birthday to You" song.
  8. What am I thinking right now?: Responds with "You're thinking, 'If my Google Assistant guesses what I'm thinking I'm going to freak out.'"
  9. F*** you: Offers to send feedback to the Google Assistant developers.
  10. What Easter eggs do you have?: Gives you a hint to help find more Easter eggs in Google Assistant. Example: I consider myself an expert on the chucking capabilities of a certain woodland creature in reference to #64 above.

Keyboard Shortcuts for Windows 10


Keyboard ShortcutAction
 
Ctrl+C (or Ctrl+Insert)
 
Copy the selected item
 
Ctrl+X
 
Cut the selected item
 
Ctrl+V (or Shift+Insert)
 
Paste the selected item
 
Ctrl+Z
 
Undo an action
 
Alt+Tab
 
Switch between open apps
Alt+F4
 Close the active item, or exit the active app
There are more!
Keyboard ShortcutAction
F2
Rename the selected item
F3
Search for a file or folder in File Explorer
F4
Display the address bar list in File Explorer
F5
Refresh the active window
F6
Cycle through screen elements in a window or on the desktop
F10
Activate the Menu bar in the active app
Alt+F4
Close the active item, or exit the active app
Alt+Esc
Cycle through items in the order in which they were opened
Alt+underlined letter
Perform the command for that letter
Alt+Enter
Display properties for the selected item
Alt+Spacebar
Open the shortcut menu for the active window
Alt+Left arrow
Go back
Alt+Right arrow
Go forward
Alt+Page Up
Move up one screen
Alt+Page Down
Move down one screen
Alt+Tab
Switch between open apps
Ctrl+F4
Close the active document
Ctrl+A
Select all items in a document or window
Ctrl+C (or Ctrl+Insert)
Copy the selected item
Ctrl+D (or Delete)
Delete the selected item and move it to the Recycle Bin
Ctrl+R (or F5)
Refresh the active window
Ctrl+V (or Shift+Insert)
Paste the selected item
Ctrl+X
Cut the selected item
Ctrl+Y
Redo an action
Ctrl+Z
Undo an action
Ctrl+Right arrow
Move the cursor to the beginning of the next word
Ctrl+Left arrow
Move the cursor to the beginning of the previous word
Ctrl+Down arrow
Move the cursor to the beginning of the next paragraph
Ctrl+Up arrow
Move the cursor to the beginning of the previous paragraph
Ctrl+Alt+Tab
Use the arrow keys to switch between all open apps
Ctrl+Alt+Shift+arrow keys
When a group or tile is in focus in the Start menu, move it in the direction specified
Ctrl+arrow key (to move to an item)+Spacebar
Select multiple individual items in a window or on the desktop
Ctrl+Shift with an arrow key
Select a block of text
Ctrl+Esc
Open Start
Ctrl+Shift+Esc
Open Task Manager
Ctrl+Shift
Switch the keyboard layout when multiple keyboard layouts are available
Ctrl+Spacebar
Turn the Chinese input method editor (IME) on or off
Shift+F10
Display the shortcut menu for the selected item
Shift with any arrow key
Select more than one item in a window or on the desktop, or select text within a document
Shift+Delete
Delete the selected item without moving it to the Recycle Bin first
Right arrow
Open the next menu to the right, or open a submenu
Left arrow
Open the next menu to the left, or close a submenu
Esc
Stop or leave the current task
Windows 10 Anniversary Update introduces two new shortcuts:
  • WinKey+Alt+D : Opens Date & Time
  • WinKey+Shift+C : Opens Cortana
Want even more? Check out these post which lists keyboard shortcuts for specific areas:
  1. New WinKey Keyboard Shortcuts in Windows 10
  2. File Explorer keyboard shortcuts
  3. Windows 10 Ease of Access and Settings keyboard shortcuts
  4. CTRL commands or keyboard shortcuts
  5. CMD or Command Prompt keyboard shortcuts
  6. Microsoft Surface Hub keyboard shortcuts
  7. Keyboard Shortcuts for Taskbar and Virtual Desktops
  8. Keyboard shortcuts for Narrator & Magnifier
  9. Continuum keyboard shortcuts.
SourceMicrosoft.
If you are a keyboard junkie, these posts are sure to interest you too!
  1. Keyboard shortcuts for Windows Media Player
  2. Outlook.com Keyboard shortcuts
  3. Customize Keyboard Shortcuts for Microsoft Word
  4. Internet Explorer Keyboard Shortcuts.

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