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bsd test


freebsd test

.txz is tar.xz  file 

base.txz kernel.txz lib32.txz ports.txz src.txz 


from bsd iso 

tar xvzf mfsbsd-2.1.tar.gz
cd mfsbsd-2.1/  


mdconfig -a -t vnode -u 10 -f FreeBSD-10.1-RELEASE-amd64-disc1.iso
mount_cd9660 /dev/md10 /cdrom 
mkdir DIST
# tar -xvf /cdrom/usr/freebsd-dist/base.txz -C DIST
# tar -xvf /cdrom/usr/freebsd-dist/kernel.txz -C DIST

direct download 

to install



vm image



wget $url -O - | xz -dc | dd of=/dev/vda bs=1M conv=fdatasync
freebsd-update fetch install 


adduser put it in wheel group

hostname in /etc/rc.conf

ifconfig, pkill dhclient

ifconfig, pkill dhclient



curl -o /bsd.rd
echo '
menuentry "OpenBSD" {
	set root=(hd0,msdos1)
	kopenbsd /bsd.rd
}' >> /etc/grub.d/40_custom
echo 'GRUB_TIMEOUT=60' >> /etc/default/grub
grub2-mkconfig > /boot/grub2/grub.cfg


copy  base.txz and kernel.txz to fat partiton

mkfs.fat /dev/sda2 

mount  /dev/sda2 /bs

cp base.txz kernel.txz /bs/

mount_cd9660 /dev/cd0 /cdrom

zfsinstall -d ada0 -u /cdrom/13.2-RELEASE -s 2G


gpart lis da0


my system

ada0 = toshiba harddisk

nvd0 = nvme ssd

gpart show ada0


mount /dev/ada0s1 /data

mounting esp partition ( fat32)

## mount

mount -t msdos  /dev/nvd0s1 /efi 

mkdir /set

mount -t msdos  /dev/ada0s2 /set



delete slice

gpart destroy -F da1s3

gpart create -s BSD da1s3 

gpart add -t freebsd-ufs -s 100G da1s3





mount root partition to /mnt

cd /mnt

tar xvJf /path/base.txz

tar xvJf /path/kernel.txz


tree of kernel.tar 174M

└── kernel
    ├── aac.ko
    ├── aacraid.ko

...    ...    ...

├── GNUSparseFile.0
      └── kernel  27.95M



du boot/kernel/* -h | sort -n -r

5.1M    boot/kernel/zfs.ko
3.4M    boot/kernel/pmspcv.ko
2.6M    boot/kernel/iwm9260fw.ko
2.6M    boot/kernel/iwm9000fw.ko
2.6M    boot/kernel/if_bxe.ko
2.4M    boot/kernel/iwlwifi-8265-36.ucode.ko
2.4M    boot/kernel/iwlwifi-8000C-36.ucode.ko
2.3M    boot/kernel/if_qlnxe.ko
2.2M    boot/kernel/if_qlxgbe.ko
2.1M    boot/kernel/iwm8000Cfw.ko
2.1M    boot/kernel/if_qlnxev.ko
1.8M    boot/kernel/iwm8265fw.ko
1.7M    boot/kernel/sfxge.ko
1.6M    boot/kernel/iwlwifi-so-a0-gf-a0-73.ucode.ko
1.6M    boot/kernel/iwlwifi-so-a0-gf4-a0-73.ucode.ko
1.5M    boot/kernel/iwlwifi-ty-a0-gf-a0-73.ucode.ko
1.5M    boot/kernel/iwlwifi-so-a0-hr-b0-73.ucode.ko
1.5M    boot/kernel/iwlwifi-9260-th-b0-jf-b0-46.ucode.ko
1.5M    boot/kernel/iwlwifi-9000-pu-b0-jf-b0-46.ucode.ko
1.5M    boot/kernel/if_lio.ko
1.4M    boot/kernel/iwlwifi-so-a0-jf-b0-73.ucode.ko
1.4M    boot/kernel/iwlwifi-QuZ-a0-hr-b0-73.ucode.ko
1.4M    boot/kernel/iwlwifi-Qu-c0-hr-b0-73.ucode.ko
1.4M    boot/kernel/iwlwifi-Qu-b0-hr-b0-73.ucode.ko
1.3M    boot/kernel/iwlwifi-QuZ-a0-jf-b0-73.ucode.ko
1.3M    boot/kernel/iwlwifi-Qu-c0-jf-b0-73.ucode.ko
1.3M    boot/kernel/iwlwifi-Qu-b0-jf-b0-73.ucode.ko
1.3M    boot/kernel/iwlwifi-cc-a0-73.ucode.ko
1.3M    boot/kernel/if_rtw88.ko
1.2M    boot/kernel/iwm7265fw.ko
1.2M    boot/kernel/iwlwifi-7265-17.ucode.ko
1.1M    boot/kernel/iwm7260fw.ko
1.1M    boot/kernel/iwlwifi-7265D-29.ucode.ko
1.1M    boot/kernel/iwlwifi-7260-17.ucode.ko
1.1M    boot/kernel/iwlwifi-3168-29.ucode.ko
1.1M    boot/kernel/ipl.ko
1.1M    boot/kernel/if_iwlwifi.ko
1.1M    boot/kernel/cam.ko


base.tar 1.012G


boot loader to copy to esp /efi

/mnt/boot/loader.efi    or boot1.efi test



nano /etc/fstab

#dev         mnt   type  options     dump  pass
/dev/da1s3a  /     ufs   rw,noatime  0     1
/dev/da1s3b  none  swap  sw          0     0
The swap encryption is automatically encrypted with a random key (at each boot) using geli 
when adding .eli to the name of the device.
get iface name using ifconfig 
nano /mnt/etc/rc.conf
chroot /mnt
virtual cocnsole
switch with alt+f[1-8]
to switch from x to tty ctrl+alt+f[1-8]
nano /etc/tty
# name    getty                         type  status comments
ttyv0   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         xterm   on  secure
# Virtual terminals
ttyv1   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         xterm   on  secure
ttyv2   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         xterm   on  secure
ttyv3   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         xterm   on  secure
ttyv4   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         xterm   on  secure
ttyv5   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         xterm   on  secure
ttyv6   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         xterm   on  secure
ttyv7   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         xterm   on  secure
ttyv8   "/usr/X11R6/bin/xdm -nodaemon"  xterm   off secure 


single user mode tty


# name  getty                           type  status  comments
# If console is marked "insecure", then init will ask for the root password
# when going to single-user mode.
console none                            unknown  off  secure



vidcontrol -i mode
set in /etc/rc.conf 

 user managment


 group managment

operator group can shutdown,reboot and access all /dev items

# pw groupadd teamtwo
# pw groupshow teamtwo
# pw groupmod teamtwo -M jru
# pw groupshow teamtwo
ugo=user,group owner,other
a= all(world)
t=sticky bit
s= set UID or GID
file flags 
enable the system undeletable flag
chflags sunlink file1
chflags nosunlink file1
ls -lo file1 


SUID,SGID and sticky

The real user ID is the UID who owns or starts the process

the effective UID is the user ID the process runs as



chmod u+s



ps aux | grep passwd

root      5342  0.0  0.0   5932  2304 pts/0    S+   18:16   0:00 passwd

kai       5591  0.0  0.0   6580  2560 pts/1    S+   18:16   0:00 grep --color=auto passwd


passwd  is using the effective UID of root 

The setgid permission performs the same function as the setuid permission; except that it alters the group settings. When an application or utility executes with this setting, it will be granted the permissions based on the group that owns the file, not the user who started the process.

  chmod g+s



SATA and IDE hard drives =  ada

SCSI hard drives and USB storage devices = da

NVMe storage = nvd,nda

SATA and IDE CD-ROM drives ,SCSI CD-ROM drives = cd

Floppy drives = fd

SCSI tape drives = sa

RAID drives = aacd(adaptec),mlxd&mlyd(mylex)



ada0s1a = The first partition (a) on the first slice (s1) on the first SATA disk (ada0).


a= root file system

b= swap

c= same size as enclosing slice , A file system would not normally be created on this partition.

d= no special meaning now ,  

ps cmd

a=all the running processes of all users

u=displays the username and memory usage of the process' owner

x=displays information about daemon processes

ww=  causes ps(1) to display the full command line for each process, rather than truncating it once it gets too long to fit on the screen.


SIGTERM is the polite way to kill a process as the process can read the signal, close any log files it may have open, and attempt to finish what it is doing before shutting down. In some cases, a process may ignore SIGTERM if it is in the middle of some task that cannot be interrupted.


SIGKILL cannot be ignored by a process. Sending a SIGKILL to a process will usually stop that process there and then

 Other commonly used signals are SIGHUP, SIGUSR1, and SIGUSR2. Since these are general purpose signals, different applications will respond differently.


/bin/kill -s KILL 1 bad way to reboot


kill by default send TERM signal 

pw groupmod video -m user

pciconf -lv|grep -B4 VGA

video driver

intel drm-kmod  module i915kms

pkg install drm-kmod

 sysrc kld_list+=i915kms

pkg install libva-intel-driver mesa-libs mesa-dri


pkg install wayland seatd

export XDG_RUNTIME_DIR=/var/run/user/`id -u`

sysrc seatd_enable=”YES”

service seatd start






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