12 Home Remedies for Restless Legs Syndrome

12 Home Remedies for Restless Legs Syndrome

Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a neurological disorder characterized by unpleasant feelings in the legs, including crawling sensations, prickling, aching, tickling sensations, and an urge to move the legs when sitting down or lying in bed. RLS affects approximately 10% of adults in the U.S. Researchers believe that RLS is commonly unrecognized or misdiagnosed as insomnia or other neurological, muscular or orthopedic condition.
Although the precise cause of the disorder is still not known, there are factors that seem to predispose a person to it, including genetics, gender, and age.
Home Remedies for Restless Legs Syndrome

Causes of Restless Legs Syndrome

Experts believe that restless legs syndrome is caused by an imbalance of dopamine, a chemical that transmits signals between nerve cells in the brain. Restless legs syndrome is usually genetic, about 60% of people with restless legs have a family member with the condition.
Knowing which RLS risk factors affect you can help you figure out the best way to prevent and lessen the symptoms since you’ll be able to address the cause of your RLS.
  • 25 percent of pregnant women experience RLS, but it usually goes away at the end of pregnancy. During pregnancy, there are lifestyle changes you can make to prevent or ease the symptoms.
  • Iron deficiencyvaricose veins, diabetes, and lung disease can all cause RLS. If you have one of these conditions, getting appropriate medical treatment may also help to prevent RLS from occurring.
  • Being overweight or obese can predispose you to RLS more readily. Taking steps to lose weight may help prevent RLS.
  • If any of your close family members have had RLS, your chances of having it may be increased. There’s nothing you can do to alter this risk factor, but you can make changes to prevent or lessen the symptoms.

Symptoms of Restless Legs Syndrome

People with restless legs syndrome feel uncomfortable sensations in their legs, especially when sitting or lying down, accompanied by an irresistible urge to move the affected limb. These sensations less commonly affect the arms, trunk, or head. Although the sensations can occur on just one side of the body, they most often affect both sides.
Because moving the legs (or other affected parts of the body) relieves the discomfort, people with RLS often keep their legs in motion to minimize or prevent the sensations. They may pace the floor, constantly move their legs while sitting, and toss and turn in bed.

Home Remedies for Restless Legs Syndrome

Many find that certain lifestyle changes and home remedies prevent or mitigate the symptoms of restless legs syndrome. Here are 12 home remedies for restless legs syndrome.
1. Reduce Stress
People who are stressed tend to sleep poorly and seem to be more prone to suffering from RLS. Relaxation techniques, such as breathing, yoga and meditation, can help reduce your stress level. Aromatherapy too can help relieve stress to a great extent and relax the muscles.
2. Drink Plenty of Water
Drinking plenty of water is thought to help to reduce RLS. The amount of water needed to keep you adequately hydrated is dependent on your personal needs and health. As a general rule, drink water every time you get thirsty, and substitute water for coffee, sugary drinks and alcohol as often as possible.
3. Avoid Caffeine
Caffeine appears to contribute to RLS, so minimizing the level of your daily caffeine intake can be helpful. Caffeine is found principally in coffee, tea, cocoa, chocolate, and energy drinks. Avoid any stimulants by way of medication or drugs.
4. Quit Smoking
The risk of RLS seems to be higher for people who smoke. To prevent RLS, eliminate or reduce the number of cigarettes you smoke per day, and cut out any other products that contain nicotine.
5. Rosemary Oil Massage
Rosemary essential oil acts as a muscle relaxant and the smell of the oil soothes both body and mind.
  • Mix 5 ml of rosemary essential oil with 10 ml of olive oil or coconut oil.
  • Massage your legs and feet with this oil mixture.
The massage should be done twice a day especially before going to bed at night.
6. Take Iron Supplements
In a study, iron deficiency has been shown to be correlated with increased symptoms of RLS. Therefore, for people with low iron levels, taking iron supplements (or consuming iron rich foods) can help control the symptoms.
  • Note that this must be done with caution, as too much iron can be problematical for the body. It is wise to consult your doctor before trying this approach to ensure that it is a safe option for you.
7. Take Vitamin B12 Supplements
Taking vitamin B12 as supplements and adding it in your diet as well can help control the symptoms of restless legs syndrome. Vitamin supplements can help in developing strong muscles and prevent the occurrence of RLS.
8. Drink Mint Tea
Mint tea is a popular herbal tea and is excellent for helping in digestion of food. It also has soothing properties that help relax the mind and body. In fact, some people also spray mint in the room as the minty smell helps them sleep better. This is one reason mint tea is an excellent aid for restless legs syndrome.
  • Drink two cups of mint tea every day to reduce the attacks of the syndrome. You can also keep fresh mint leaves under your pillow and mattresses for sleeping better at nights. The fresh smell of mint will help you relax better.
9. Warm Compress
Just as cold compress offers great relief from restless legs syndrome for some, others find relief when they use a warm compress. Take warm water in a basin and soak your feet in this for 10 minutes.
10. Stretch Your Legs
Winding down with some leg stretches before going to bed can help your legs loosen up and relieve tension. While there’s no conclusive evidence that stretching will prevent RLS, some find it beneficial.
  • Sit on the edge of the bed and firmly massage your calves to give the muscles deeper stimulation.
  • Go for a brief walk around your home. Take long steps and bend your legs to stretch the muscles.
Stop if the stretching produces a charley horse or leg cramps. Those are strong signs of magnesium deficiency and can’t be alleviated by stretching.
11. Massage Your Legs
Massage your legs frequently to get rid of the tingling sensation that is common with individuals suffering from RLS. Massaging your lower back and legs (including the calves and feet) regularly would both stimulate the muscles in them, and send appropriate signals to your brain indicating that your legs are healthy and active. This would in turn control the symptoms of RLS effectively for extended periods.
12. Get Active
Those with a sedentary lifestyle seem to be more prone to getting RLS. Include more exercise in your daily routine but start gradually, especially if you’ve not exercised for a while. Exercise not only helps prevent RLS but can also help reduce symptoms if they are already present. The kind of exercise that is most beneficial is anything moderately strenuous, and doing it regularly. Try swimming, cycling, walking fast, running, gym work, yoga, and so on.
  • Intense leg workouts can help. Try a week of daily intense leg exercises lasting around 20 to 30 minutes; cycling or fast walking are excellent choices.
  • Brisk walking four times a week for 30 minutes at a time has been shown to lessen the severity of RLS over a few months.
  • Swimming is a very gentle way to stretch leg muscles, especially if other forms of exercise cause you to cramp when stretching.

Related Video: Yoga For Restless Legs Syndrome


  • If your symptoms aren’t improving or are getting worse, speak to your doctor. Don’t self-medicate in the hope it will go away; it won’t if it hasn’t already and it could be masking something more serious.
  • Do not take iron tablets without your doctor’s advice and if you miss taking it, never double up to make up for the missed supplement.

12 Habits That Can Damage Your Kidneys

12 Habits That Can Damage Your Kidneys

The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs, each about the size of a fist. They are located just below the rib cage, one on each side of the spine. Every day, the kidneys filter about 120-150 quarts of blood to produce about 1-2 quarts of urine. The kidneys work around the clock; a person does not control what they do. They filter our blood, produce hormones, absorb minerals, produce urine, eliminate toxins, and neutralize acids. So as one of the most important organs in your body, your kidneys deserve some love.
Habits That Can Damage Your Kidneys
Kidney failure may occur from an acute situation that injures the kidneys or from chronic diseases that gradually cause the kidneys to stop functioning. Here is a list of 12 common habits that put a lot of pressure on your kidneys and can cause serious damage over time.
1. Using Artificial Sweeteners
Sugar consumption, especially in the form of fructose, has been hypothesized to cause kidney disease. Research supports a causal role of sugar in several kidney disease risk factors, including increasing serum uric acid levels, diabetes, and obesity. There is no evidence that sucrose is any safer for the kidney than high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) because both are similar in composition. Individuals who consume a diet high in artificially sweetened drinks are more likely to experience a decline in kidney function, according to a paper presented at the American Society of Nephrology’s annual meeting in San Diego, California.
2. Consuming Too Much Caffeine
Caffeine is a bitter substance found in coffee, tea, soft drinks, chocolate, kola nuts, and certain medicines. It has many effects on the body’s metabolism, including stimulating the central nervous system. Caffeine can place a strain on your kidneys. Because caffeine is a stimulant, it can stimulate blood flow, increasing blood pressure and stress on the kidneys.
A 2002 study in Kidney International showed that long-term caffeine consumption exacerbated chronic kidney failure in obese and diabetic rats (1). Caffeine consumption has also been linked to kidney stone formation by increasing calcium excretion in urine (2).
3. Consuming Genetically Modified Foods
Genetically modified foods develops while fears raises and spreads among citizens. If you happen to be a person with kidney disease, you may feel more troubled for the news that a study showed genetically modified foods can cause liver and kidney damages.
The research on genetically modified foods showed that, animals who are fed on the “advanced” crops appeared to have signs of organ damages within 3 months. According to the experiment, rats which ate the GM maize had statistically significant signs of liver and kidney damage. Each strain was linked to unusual concentrations of hormones in the blood and urine of rats fed the maize for three months, compared to rats given a non-GM diet. The result is the former rats show a less kidney and liver functions than that of latter rats. In addition, the female rats fed GM foods also indicated high fatty substances levels and high blood sugar levels.
4. Consuming High-Sodium Foods
Your body removes unwanted fluid by filtering your blood through your kidney, via osmosis, to draw excess water out of your blood. This requires a balance of sodium and potassium to pull the water across the wall from the bloodstream into a collecting channel in the kidney. A high salt diet will alter this sodium balance, causing the kidneys to have reduced function and remove less water resulting in higher blood pressure. This puts strain on the kidneys and can lead to kidney disease.
A high salt intake has been shown to increase the amount of protein in the urine which is a major risk factor for the decline of kidney function. There is also increasing evidence that a high salt intake may increase deterioration of kidney disease in people already suffering from kidney problems.
5. Overusing Analgesics
Analgesics are medicines that help to control pain and reduce fever, and some types also decrease inflammation. Heavy or long-term use of some of these medicines, such as ibuprofen, naproxen, and higher dose aspirin, can cause chronic kidney disease known as chronic interstitial nephritis. Both over-the-counter and prescription pain medications can damage and reduce blood flow to the kidneys. Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) are a main culprit. As many as 1 to 3 percent of new cases of chronic kidney failure each year may be caused by pain medication overuse (3).
6. Smoking
Until 2003, the data on the risk of smoking-associated chronic kidney disease in patients of the general population were scarce. The Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT) investigated 332,544 men and documented that smoking was significantly associated with an increased risk for ESRD (End Stage Renal Disease) but the magnitude of the effect was not reported, and no baseline creatinine and proteinuria measurements were available.
7. Magnesium Deficiency
Magnesium is the fourth most abundant cation in the body and plays an important physiological role in many of its functions. Magnesium balance is maintained by renal regulation of magnesium reabsorption. The exact mechanism of the renal regulation is not fully understood.
If you don’t get enough magnesium, calcium can’t get properly absorbed and assimilated, which can result in calcium overload and kidney stone formation. To prevent that, consume green leafy vegetables, beans, seeds and nuts. The mighty avocado is a good source of magnesium as well.
8. Not Drinking Enough Water
Your kidney’s most important function is to filter blood and eliminate toxins and waste materials. If you don’t drink enough, the toxins can start accumulating in the blood, as there isn’t enough fluid to drain them through the kidneys. The National Kidney Foundation suggests drinking at least 12 glasses of water per day.
9. Not Emptying Your Bladder Early
When nature calls, you should listen. Retaining urine in your bladder is a bad idea. If done on regular basis, it can increase the urine pressure in your kidneys and lead to renal failure or incontinence.
10. Consuming Too Much Protein
Without protein, our bodies would be unable to heal from injury, stop bleeding or fight infection. That’s why eating protein is so important to staying healthy. The average person needs between 40-65 grams of protein each day.
However, protein can be tricky for people with chronic kidney disease. Although protein is a necessary nutrient, patients are often faced with the dilemma of having to limit protein intake.
11. Alcohol Consumption
Both acute and chronic alcohol consumption can compromise kidney function, particularly in conjunction with established liver disease. Investigators have observed alcohol-related changes in the structure and function of the kidneys and impairment in their ability to regulate the volume and composition of fluid and electrolytes in the body.
Chronic alcoholic patients may experience low blood concentrations of key electrolytes as well as potentially severe alterations in the body’s acid-base balance. In addition, alcohol can disrupt the hormonal control mechanisms that govern kidney function.
12. Lack of Exercise
Exercise is another good way to protect your kidneys. A large study published in 2013 in theJournal of the American Society of Nephrology suggested that postmenopausal women who exercised had 31% lower risk of developing kidney stones. Generally speaking, maintaining a healthy weight will reduce your chances of kidney stones.

Habits Damage Kidneys

18 Home Remedies for Dandruff Body

18 Home Remedies for Dandruff

Dandruff, a condition characterized by flaking, itchy scalp, is one of the most common dermatological conditions. Dandruff can be controlled by following healthy hair care routine. However, it can even be controlled with easy to follow home remedies. It is true that home remedies take time to show results but they can effectively treat the problem completely. Read on to learn how to get rid of dandruff with home remedies.

What Causes Dandruff

Dandruff is caused when the natural cycle of skin renewal is speeded up. This leads to patches of dead skin forming on the surface of the scalp, which come away into the hair, resulting in the flakes associated with dandruff. What causes the skin renewal cycle to speed up is not always clear. Possible causes of dandruff may include:
  • Dry skin. Simple dry skin is the most common cause of dandruff.
  • Irritated, oily skin (seborrheic dermatitis). This condition, one of the most frequent causes of dandruff, is marked by red, greasy skin covered with flaky white or yellow scales.
  • Not shampooing often enough.
  • Other skin conditions. People with skin conditions such as eczema — a chronic, inflammatory skin condition — or psoriasis — a skin condition marked by a rapid buildup of rough, dry, dead skin cells that form thick scales — may appear to have dandruff.
  • A yeast-like fungus (malassezia). Malassezia lives on the scalps of most adults, but for some, it irritates the scalp. This can irritate your scalp and cause more skin cells to grow.
  • Sensitivity to hair care products. Sometimes sensitivities to certain ingredients in hair care products or hair dyes, especially paraphenylenediamine, can cause a red, itchy, scaly scalp. Shampooing too often or using too many styling products also may irritate your scalp, causing dandruff.
  • Emotional stress.
  • Very hot or cold climates.
  • Obesity.
  • Having a weakened immune system.

Home Remedies for Dandruff

1. Aspirin

Aspirin contains the same active ingredient (salicylic acid) as many medicated dandruff shampoos. Keep flaking in check by crushing two aspirins to a fine powder and adding it to the normal amount of shampoo you use each time you wash your hair. Leave the mixture on your hair for 1-2 minutes, then rinse well and wash again with plain shampoo.
  • You will need 2 aspirin tablets and shampoo.
  • Crush the tablets. Add it to any normal shampoo.
  • Let it lather and keep it on for 5 minutes.
  • Wash your hair.
  • If you feel the aspirin powder on your scalp, rinse again with plain shampoo.

2. Olive Oil

There are two ways in which olive oil can cure dandruff. One, olive oil moisturizes the dry areas of the scalp and prevents them from flaking. Two, olive oil can soak into the thick and scaly areas of the scalp that cause continuous dandruff issues. Because of this, the scaly areas fall down as one large piece instead of separate flakes. This helps put an end to dandruff as the affected spot can finally heal.
  • Before going to bed, massage your scalp with warm olive oil every day.
  • Cleanse your hair with a mild shampoo the next morning.
  • Make sure you cover your head with a cotton wrap (to prevent your oily hair from attracting dust). Ensure the olive oil is just warm and not too hot.

3. Tea Tree Oil

One study showed that shampoos with just 5 percent tea tree oil significantly improves the severity of dandruff. You can also add a few drops of tea tree oil to your favorite shampoo as you wash normally.

4. Ginger

Ginger contains anti-inflammatory properties and can also stimulate hair growth. Ginger, when mixed with oil improves circulation. The active components of ginger like volatile oils help prevent dandruff.
  • Peel the ginger and grate it. Take about four ounces of sesame oil into a small cup.
  • Squeeze the ginger in cheesecloth to get the oil. Mix the ginger oil and sesame oil.
  • Massage your scalp gently with the oil. Leave your hair undisturbed and then wash it with a mild shampoo. Ginger oil, when combined with natural oil like sesame, can be an excellent ingredient to cure dandruff and promote hair health.

5. Apple Cider Vinegar

Dr. Mehmet Oz swears by apple cider vinegar as a dandruff remedy, as the acidity of apple cider vinegar changes the pH of your scalp, making it harder for yeast to grow.
  • Mix a quarter cup apple cider vinegar with a quarter cup water in a spray bottle and spritz on your scalp.
  • Wrap your head in a towel and let sit for 15 minutes to an hour, then wash your hair as usual. Do this twice a week.

6. Coconut Oil

Before showering, massage 3-5 tablespoons of coconut oil into your scalp and let sit for about an hour. Shampoo normally. You can also look for a shampoo that already contains coconut oil.

7. Apples

This might be an unconventional and unusual ingredient for hair. Unripe apples contain Procyanidin B-2, a natural compound that has been found to promote hair growth. Since untreated dandruff ultimately leads to hair fall, apples do play a role in keeping your hair healthy.
  • Add two tablespoons of apple juice to an equal amount of water and apply onto your scalp.
  • Leave it for about fifteen minutes and then wash your scalp with a mild shampoo.

8. Lemon

Dandruff relief may be no farther away than your refrigerator. Just massage 2 tablespoons lemon juice into your scalp and rinse with water. Then stir 1 teaspoon lemon juice into 1 cup water and rinse your hair with it. Repeat this daily until your dandruff disappears. Lemon‘s acidity helps balance the pH of your scalp, which helps keeps dandruff at bay.
  • You will need juice of 4 lemons or raw lemon slices. Rub lemon slices on your scalp and leave for 10-15 minutes. Rinse with plain water.
  • Do this once a week to see results.

9. Flaxseed

Take 1 to 2 teaspoons of flaxseed oil a day. It contains essential fatty acids, which seem to help itchy skin conditions such as psoriasis and eczema—and possibly dandruff. Be patient; you may need to take it for up to 3 months to see a difference. A side benefit: Flaxseed oil also helps guard against heart disease.

10. Fenugreek

Fenugreek is a plant that is used commonly as a spice, particularly in Indian cuisine; however it serves medicinal purposes as well. Fenugreek seeds have a composition that is rich in protein and amino acids, encouraging healthy hair/hair growth and warding off those wicked flakes in the process. A little bonus-its high concentration of lecithin (a natural emollient) can help make hair stronger overall, and many people find that it leaves their hair silky smooth and soft.
  • You will need 2 tablespoons of Fenugreek seeds, a bowl of water and something to grind the seeds with.
  • Soak the seeds in 1-2 cups of water overnight.
  • The next morning, grind them into a fine paste and apply to your scalp.
  • Leave it applied for 30-45 minutes, then wash with mild shampoo or water.

11. Lemon Juice with Sandalwood or Garlic

Another effective remedy for dandruff is lemon juice mixed with either sandalwood or garlic (both of which have antimicrobial properties).
  • Mix one part lemon juice to two parts garlic or sandalwood and apply as a paste to the affected area of your scalp. The lemon juice will serve as an effective remedy against existing flakes, while the garlic or sandalwood will prevent against bacteria that can aid in flake growth.
  • Leave this treatment in for 20 to 30 minutes and then rinse with a mild shampoo.

12. Neem Leaves

Neem leaves (also an Indian herb) make a great all-natural home remedy for your dandruff. Their properties not only relieve itching, they act as an antifungal as well, inhibiting the over-growth of dandruff causing fungus. Be aware that some people find its smell to be overwhelming.
  • You will need at least 2 handfuls of neem leaves and 4-5 cups of hot water.
  • Add two handfuls of neem leaves to 4 or 5 cups of hot water. Let it stand overnight.
  • The next morning strain the liquid and use it to rinse your hair.
  • You can also try making a paste out of leaves, applying it to your scalp, and letting it sit for about an hour before washing it off with water.

13. Curd

Take a small amount (enough to make a mask for your hair) of white sour curd or yogurt and leave it in the open for a day or two for fermentation. Whisk the curd and apply it to your scalp and hair like a mask and leave it on for an hour. Rinse it thoroughly with a mild shampoo. The acidic quality of the curd not only helps combat dandruff, but conditions it to give it a shiny, soft texture.

14. Black Pepper

Black pepper has long been used in India to treat dandruff due to the combination of zinc and selenium found in it, which are effective at fighting dandruff flakes.
  • Rather than solely applying black pepper to the scalp, mix two teaspoons with a cup of yogurt and stir.
  • Next, rub the blend into the affected area of your scalp and leave in for an hour or two.
  • Following this, wash it out with a mild shampoo. This also acts as a great natural conditioner.

15. Get Some Sun

It’s not known exactly why, but there have been links between dandruff and exposure to sunlight. There have been many cases in which the severity of dandruff lessened when the afflicted person spent more time in the sun. It’s possible that instead of dry weather in the winter causing dandruff, it’s really the lack of sunlight. Maybe the light helps dry up some of the excess oil, or maybe getting a little time outside in the sun makes for a happier healthier human overall. Whatever the exact reason is, it’s something to try, and it’s probably one of the most straightforward home remedies you can try.
  • Spend at least 10-15 minutes out in the sunlight every day that you can.
  • Make sure to limit your time though-too much sun and it’s UV rays can be harmful to your skin, hair, and health.

16. Honey

Raw honey is a natural humectant that helps hair hold onto moisture while delivering a powerful infusion of vitamins A, C, D, E, B-complex, beta-carotene and tons of minerals including iron, magnesium, potassium, manganese, calcium, and phosphorous. Dandruff can plug hair follicles and prevent new hair from growing in, and honey eliminates dandruff.
In a study with thirty patients with seborrheic dermatitis and dandruff were asked to rub diluted honey on their scalp and massage for 2-3 minutes every other day, then leave it on for 3 hours. Itching was relieved and scaling disappeared within one week, while skin lesions were healed and disappeared completely within 2 weeks – those who continued the treatment once per week had no relapses. Twelve of the 15 patients who did not continue the honey regimen relapsed within 2-4 months. More on treating the root cause of dandruff at the bottom of this post.

17. Switch Shampoos

If your regular shampoo isn’t doing the trick, even with daily washing, it’s time to switch to an anti-dandruff shampoo. Check the ingredients in over-the-counter dandruff shampoos, and look for one that contains zinc pyrithione, which can reduce the fungus; selenium sulfide, which can limit cell turnover and possibly even decrease the amount of fungus; salicylic acid, which works as a sort of scrub to slough off dead skin; or ketoconazole, which works against a broad array of fungi.

18. Baking Soda

Your kitchen could hold the key to an itch-free, flake-free scalp. Wet your hair and then rub a handful of baking soda vigorously into your scalp. Skip the shampoo and go right to rinsing. Baking soda reduces overactive fungi that can cause dandruff. Your hair may get dried out at first, but after a few weeks your scalp will start producing natural oils, leaving your hair softer and free of flakes.
  • You will need 2 tsp baking soda and few drops of water. Wash your hair with warm water. Add a few drops of water in baking soda to form a paste.
  • Apply it on your scalp and massage it for a few minutes. Finally, rinse your hair with plain water or shampoo.

How to Prevent Dandruff

Avoid stress. Stress challenges the body’s defenses and encourages all sorts of ailments, including dandruff, so relax now and don’t worry about wearing a black shirt tomorrow.
Eat a healthy, balanced diet. As if you needed another reason to eat right, it turns out that a healthy diet may ward off the flakes.
  • Make sure to get plenty of zinc, Omega-3 fatty acids, E and B-vitamins, and avoid excessive yeast and sugar. Research suggests that dandruff is at least in part caused by a fungus that thrives in yeasty, fatty, sugary environments.
Wash your hair regularly. Dandruff seems to thrive in oily hair, so regular shampooing can help you fight it off.
  • If you already have dandruff, washing your hair may help you keep the symptoms (the flakes) under control until it goes away. Massage your scalp so that you clean your skin, as well as your hair.
  • This is one time when the “repeat” directions in “wash, rinse, and repeat” may be useful. The first washing breaks up the waxy sebum, and the second washing helps rinse it all away.
Keep your hair moisturized. Lack of moisture makes hair dry, which is a major reason for oils and dandruff in hair. Use conditioners thrice a week to keep hair soft and moisturized. Also leave in conditioners are available that can be used. Remember that moisture is a precaution can prevent excessive dandruff in hair.
Brush your hair after you shower and shampoo. Brushing your hair will help distribute the oil that is naturally occurring in your scalp and hair over the entire surface of your head. Starting at your scalp, brush outward to help distribute oil from the scalp along your entire head.
Shampoo more. Many people are of the belief that dandruff is caused by dry skin, and try to make up for this by shampooing less so as to not strip the skin of its natural oils. They may also use special shampoo for dandruff when they really have dry scalp, which will just dry it out even more.
  • One of the biggest causes of dandruff is oily skin-that is why the skin flakes are often greasy, not dry. The best way to combat this is to shampoo more rather than less.
  • Since that dandruff is a build-up or excess of rapidly maturing skin cells, scrubbing with shampoo can help get the itchy layer off naturally.
Limit your use of hair styling products. Hairspray, mousse, and gel may contribute to dandruff in some people.
  • The exception to this would be using a therapeutic styling gel or spray formulated with tea tree oil.


  • Watch out for shampoos that are packaged to look like dandruff shampoos but only say that they will rinse away loose dandruff. Any shampoo will rinse away loose dandruff.
  • Discontinue use of any anti-dandruff shampoo or medication if the condition worsens or spreads, or if you notice side effects. Consult your primary care physician or dermatologist if the problem doesn’t go away.
  • Using more than one anti-dandruff product may cause redness and irritation.
  • If the dandruff doesn’t begin to go away within 1 week seek medical attention.


  • When you use shampoo, try adding a squirt of lemon juice. This can help reduce the effects of dandruff.
  • Use some anti-dandruff grease. This can produce good results.
  • Clean your hairbrush regularly in vinegar.



18 Signs You’re Under Too Much Stress

18 Signs You’re Under Too Much Stress

Effective stress management is a crucial skill that every individual needs to possess. Although stress is not entirely detrimental and can even be helpful and motivating at moderate levels, chronic exposure to high levels of stress can lead to numerous mental and physical conditions. For this reason, detecting the signs of stress early is an essential step towards leading a healthy lifestyle and being happy.
While stress affects different people in many different ways, there are certain factors and symptoms that are common among the general population. Here are 18 signs you’re under too much stress.

Mental Signs of Stress

1. Weird Dreams
Dreams usually get progressively more positive as you sleep, so you wake up in a good mood. However, when you’re stressed, you wake up more often, disrupting this process and allowing unpleasant imagery to recur all night. Good sleep habits can help prevent this.
Aim for 7-8 hours a night, and avoid caffeine and alcohol close to bedtime.
2. Mood Changes
You’re rude to a friend out of the blue, you can’t seem to sit still, or you’ve started crying at random intervals. It may be that stress is affecting your mood, and thus your behavior. That’s not to say that you can blame stress for all of your bad moods, but if you can’t seem to shake it you may want to ask yourself if stress is to blame.
3. Feeling Bored and Unsatisfied
Another sign of stress is the feeling that everything in your life is dull and boring. If you are feeling this way, it could mean that your brain is not getting enough stimulation. When you’re under constant pressure to perform tasks that do not give you satisfaction it is likely that you will start feeling acute stress over time.
4. Feeling Emotionally Distant
Another common indication of stress is feeling emotionally distant or unresponsive. You may feel like you don’t have the energy to interact with people, or that you just can’t connect with them anymore. These feelings of disconnection may cause you to isolate yourself and avoid socializing with others.
5. Memory Problems
We all have our moments of not being able to find our car keys, but research shows that the more stress we are under, the more frequent these mental lapses may become. In fact, not only can long-term stress (over a period of weeks or months) disrupt communication between brain cells, but even several hours of acute stress can affect the brain’s ability to store information and create solid memories.
If you find yourself at a point in which you’re forgetting appointments and meetings regularly, you’re most likely stressed almost to your breaking point. Don’t let it go farther without seeking help.
6. Lack of Motivation
When you’re stressed out you may start feeling overwhelmed. When this happens you may have an extremely difficult time getting anything done. Sometimes stress can be a motivating factor, but if you’re losing focus on a project that is important or that you were previously excited about, stress may be the root of the problem.
7. General Anxiety
Anxiety does serve an important function for survival, but if you’re feeling anxious much of the time, it could be because you have too many stressors in your life, or it may indicate a medical condition like generalized anxiety disorder. If you experience an increase in anxiety, you may want to to talk to your doctor.

Physical Signs of Stress

8. Stress-Induced Hair Loss
Some amount of hair loss is normal — strands fall out over time and get replaced by new ones. However, when you’re under physical or emotional stress the normal shedding of 100 or so hairs a day can speed up to the point where half to three-quarters of your hair can fall out.
Known as telogen effluvium, this diffuse and often stress-induced hair loss may not happen right away. In fact, it may take weeks or months after the stressful event for the hair to actually shed. Fortunately, after 6-8 months this type of hair loss often improves.
9. Sleep Pattern Changes
When you’re stressed out it becomes increasingly more difficult to actually fall sleep. Stress-related insomnia stems from not being able to stop thinking about all your obligations in life, combined with the fact that your body is still in “overdrive mode” regardless of what time it is. And, of course, since you can’t sleep, you’ll be even more exhausted the following day, which will only serve to increase your stress load.
10. Weekend Headaches
A sudden drop in stress can prompt migraines, says Todd Schwedt, MD, director of the Washington University Headache Center. Stick closely to your weekday sleeping and eating schedule to minimize other triggers.
11. Reduced Immunity
Excessive stress and anxiety can lead to reduced immunity and an increased chance of getting sick. This link between stress and the body’s ability to fight disease may go all the way back to childhood. Researchers have found that adolescents who were abused or experienced other, intensely stressful situations as children were less able to ward off certain infections even years later.
It’s crucial to keep daily stress under control as much as possible to offset the effects of past stress and encourage good health in the present.
12. Being Exhausted
If you have trouble getting out of bed everyday, despite getting a full night’s rest, you’re probably clinically exhausted. Since your body feels like it’s working overtime, even getting a good night’s sleep is not enough to recharge it for the following day.
Take action to reduce the stress in your life. Your body will thank you.
13. Awful Period Cramps
The most stressed-out women are more than twice as likely to experience painful menstrual cramps as those who are less tense, a Harvard study found. Researchers blame a stress-induced imbalance of hormones. Hitting the gym can soothe cramps and stress, research shows, by decreasing sympathetic nervous system activity.
14. Digestive Issues
Being under too much pressure can lead to physical discomfort. That feeling of nausea you get when you pull into your office’s parking lot is a direct response to the stress you’re already feeling about the day ahead of you. However, it’s not as simple as a quick rumble in your stomach. It could cause problems with your digestive system that could lead to vomiting or other issues.
15. Decreased Sex Drive
When you’re stressed out and have a ton of issues on your mind, your sex drive is likely to decrease. You might be frustrated about it and wish you could do something about it, but when the opportunity arises, you’ll find yourself not being able to focus, or not being in the mood at all.
While most men may experience erectile dysfunction from time to time, when it happens frequently, its underlying cause should be investigated. Causes of erectile dysfunction can include diabetes, high blood pressure, side effects of certain medications, and chronic stress.
16. Abdominal Pain
Anxiety and stress can cause stomach aches, along with headaches, back aches, and insomnia. One study of 1,953 men and women found that those experiencing the highest levels of stress were more than three times as likely to have abdominal pain as their more-relaxed counterparts.
The exact connection is still unclear, but one theory holds that the intestines and the brain share nerve pathways; when the mind reacts to stress, the intestines pick up the same signal. Because of this link, learning to manage stress with the help of a clinical psychologist, meditation, or even exercise can usually help relieve tummy trouble too. However, if you have frequent abdominal pain, see your doctor to rule out food allergies, lactose intolerance, irritable bowel syndrome, or an ulcer.
17. Changes in Appetite
Another typical sign of increased stress levels is change in appetite. Think about the amount of food that you would eat on a daily basis under normal circumstances. If you find that that amount has significantly increased or decreased, that means you are under stress and should take precautions.
  • Overeating usually means that you are using food as a form of comfort – you are getting pleasure out of it because you cannot find pleasure elsewhere in your life.
  • People who respond to stress by undereating usually do it because they feel numb all around and are unable to get normal pleasure out of food.
18. Chronic Head and Body Aches
Your body puts itself into hyper mode when you’re under too much stress. This fatigue not only affects your focus and attention, but also puts a physical strain on your body. Your body has a natural “fight or flight” mechanism which stemmed from the early days of humanity in which we had to actually dodge predators on a normal basis.
Nowadays, though we don’t have to worry about predators coming out of nowhere to attack us, our body reacts the same way to recurring stress accrued from work and other parts of life. Why do you think getting a shoulder rub feels so great after a long day? Because your body’s been tense for the past eight hours dealing with all the garbage you’ve had to deal with.

How to Reduce Stress

If you fear that you might be becoming stressed, it’s a good idea to take some preventative measures to stop the stress from becoming any worse and turning into a more serious issue.
Do yoga or meditation. These activities use deep breathing techniques which promote relaxation and minimize stress.
Spend more time with your friends and family. Take some time to enjoy life by spending time with the people you care about. It’s also important to set aside some personal time each day.
Exercise more. Exercise releases feel-good hormones and is one of the best remedies for stress.
Cut back on your workload or change career. If you feel as though your stress is caused by work, consider cutting back your workload, delegating more tasks, taking time off or even changing jobs or careers.


Brainfuck programming language


Designed byUrban Müller
First appeared1993
Typing disciplinestatic, strong, manifest
Filename extensions.b, .bf
Influenced by
Brainfuck is an esoteric programming language created in 1993 by Urban Müller, and notable for its extreme minimalism.
The language consists of only eight simple commands and an instruction pointer. While it is fully Turing-complete, it is not intended for practical use, but to challenge and amuse programmers.
The language's name is a reference to the slang term "brain fuck", which refers to things so complicated or unusual that they exceed the limits of one's understanding.


In 1992, Urban Müller, a Swiss physics student, took over a small online archive for Amiga software.[1] The archive grew more popular, and was soon mirrored around the world. Today, it is the world's largest Amiga archive, known as Aminet.
Müller designed Brainfuck with the goal of implementing it with the smallest possible compiler,[2] inspired by the 1024-byte compiler for the FALSE programming language.[3]Müller's original compiler was implemented in machine language and compiled to a binary with a size of 296 bytes. He uploaded the first Brainfuck compiler to Aminet in 1993. The program came with a "Readme" file, which briefly described the language, and challenged the reader "Who can program anything useful with it? :)". Müller also included an interpreter and some quite elaborate examples. A second version of the compiler used only 240 bytes.[4]
As Aminet grew, the compiler became popular among the Amiga community, and in time it was implemented for other platforms. Several brainfuck compilers have been made smaller than 200 bytes, and one is only 100 bytes.[5]

Language design[edit]

The language consists of eight commands, listed below. A brainfuck program is a sequence of these commands, possibly interspersed with other characters (which are ignored). The commands are executed sequentially, with some exceptions: an instruction pointer begins at the first command, and each command it points to is executed, after which it normally moves forward to the next command. The program terminates when the instruction pointer moves past the last command.
The brainfuck language uses a simple machine model consisting of the program and instruction pointer, as well as an array of at least 30,000 byte cells initialized to zero; a movable data pointer (initialized to point to the leftmost byte of the array); and two streams of bytes for input and output (most often connected to a keyboard and a monitor respectively, and using the ASCII character encoding).


The eight language commands each consist of a single character:
>increment the data pointer (to point to the next cell to the right).
<decrement the data pointer (to point to the next cell to the left).
+increment (increase by one) the byte at the data pointer.
-decrement (decrease by one) the byte at the data pointer.
.output the byte at the data pointer.
,accept one byte of input, storing its value in the byte at the data pointer.
[if the byte at the data pointer is zero, then instead of moving the instruction pointer forward to the next command, jump it forward to the command after thematching ] command.
]if the byte at the data pointer is nonzero, then instead of moving the instruction pointer forward to the next command, jump it back to the command after thematching [ command.
(Alternatively, the ] command may instead be translated as an unconditional jump to the corresponding [ command, or vice versa; programs will behave the same but will run more slowly, due to unnecessary double searching.)
[ and ] match as parentheses usually do: each [ matches exactly one ] and vice versa, the [ comes first, and there can be no unmatched [ or ] between the two.
Brainfuck programs can be translated into C using the following substitutions, assuming ptr is of type char* and has been initialized to point to an array of zeroed bytes:
brainfuck commandC equivalent
(Program Start)char array[infinitely large size] = {0};
char *ptr=array;
[while (*ptr) {
As the name suggests, brainfuck programs tend to be difficult to comprehend. This is partly because any mildly complex task requires a long sequence of commands; partly it is because the program's text gives no direct indications of the program's state. These, as well as brainfuck's inefficiency and its limited input/output capabilities, are some of the reasons it is not used for serious programming. Nonetheless, like any Turing-complete language, brainfuck is theoretically capable of computing any computable function or simulating any other computational model, if given access to an unlimited amount of memory.[6] A variety of brainfuck programs have been written.[7] Although brainfuck programs, especially complicated ones, are difficult to write, it is quite trivial to write an interpreter for brainfuck in a more typical language such as C due to its simplicity. There even exists a brainfuck interpreter written in the brainfuck language itself.[8]
Brainfuck is an example of a so-called Turing tarpit: It can be used to write any program, but it is not practical to do so, because Brainfuck provides so little abstraction that the programs get very long or complicated.

Brainfuck's formal "parent language"[edit]

Except for its two I/O commands, brainfuck is a minor variation of the formal programming language P′′ created by Corrado Böhm in 1964. In fact, using six symbols equivalent to the respective brainfuck commands +-<>[], Böhm provided an explicit program for each of the basic functions that together serve to compute any computable function. So the first "brainfuck" programs appear in Böhm's 1964 paper – and they were programs sufficient to prove Turing-completeness.


Adding two values[edit]

As a first, simple example, the following code snippet will add the current cell's value to the next cell: Each time the loop is executed, the current cell is decremented, the data pointer moves to the right, that next cell is incremented, and the data pointer moves left again. This sequence is repeated until the starting cell is 0.

Hello World![edit]

The following program prints "Hello World!" and a newline to the screen:
[ This program prints "Hello World!" and a newline to the screen, its
  length is 106 active command characters. [It is not the shortest.]

  This loop is a "comment loop", a simple way of adding a comment
  to a BF program such that you don't have to worry about any command
  characters. Any ".", ",", "+", "-", "<" and ">" characters are simply
  ignored, the "[" and "]" characters just have to be balanced. This
  loop and the commands it contains are ignored because the current cell
  defaults to a value of 0; the 0 value causes this loop to be skipped.
+++++ +++               Set Cell #0 to 8
    >++++               Add 4 to Cell #1; this will always set Cell #1 to 4
    [                   as the cell will be cleared by the loop
        >++             Add 2 to Cell #2
        >+++            Add 3 to Cell #3
        >+++            Add 3 to Cell #4
        >+              Add 1 to Cell #5
        <<<<-           Decrement the loop counter in Cell #1
    ]                   Loop till Cell #1 is zero; number of iterations is 4
    >+                  Add 1 to Cell #2
    >+                  Add 1 to Cell #3
    >-                  Subtract 1 from Cell #4
    >>+                 Add 1 to Cell #6
    [<]                 Move back to the first zero cell you find; this will
                        be Cell #1 which was cleared by the previous loop
    <-                  Decrement the loop Counter in Cell #0
]                       Loop till Cell #0 is zero; number of iterations is 8

The result of this is:
Cell No :   0   1   2   3   4   5   6
Contents:   0   0  72 104  88  32   8
Pointer :   ^

>>.                     Cell #2 has value 72 which is 'H'
>---.                   Subtract 3 from Cell #3 to get 101 which is 'e'
+++++++..+++.           Likewise for 'llo' from Cell #3
>>.                     Cell #5 is 32 for the space
<-.                     Subtract 1 from Cell #4 for 87 to give a 'W'
<.                      Cell #3 was set to 'o' from the end of 'Hello'
+++.------.--------.    Cell #3 for 'rl' and 'd'
>>+.                    Add 1 to Cell #5 gives us an exclamation point
>++.                    And finally a newline from Cell #6
For "readability", this code has been spread across many lines and blanks and comments have been added. Brainfuck ignores all characters except the eight commands +-<>[],. so no special syntax for comments is needed (as long as the comments don't contain the command characters). The code could just as well have been written as:


This program enciphers its input with the ROT13 cipher. To do this, it must map characters A-M (ASCII 65-77) to N-Z (78-90), and vice versa. Also it must map a-m (97-109) to n-z (110-122) and vice versa. It must map all other characters to themselves; it reads characters one at a time and outputs their enciphered equivalents until it reads an EOF (here assumed to be represented as either -1 or "no change"), at which point the program terminates.
The basic approach used is as follows. Calling the input character x, divide x-1 by 32, keeping quotient and remainder. Unless the quotient is 2 or 3, just output x, having kept a copy of it during the division. If the quotient is 2 or 3, divide the remainder ((x-1) modulo 32) by 13; if the quotient here is 0, output x+13; if 1, output x-13; if 2, output x.
Regarding the division algorithm, when dividing y by z to get a quotient q and remainder r, there is an outer loop which sets q and r first to the quotient and remainder of 1/z, then to those of 2/z, and so on; after it has executed y times, this outer loop terminates, leaving q and r set to the quotient and remainder of y/z. (The dividend y is used as a diminishing counter that controls how many times this loop is executed.) Within the loop, there is code to increment r and decrement y, which is usually sufficient; however, everyzth time through the outer loop, it is necessary to zero r and increment q. This is done with a diminishing counter set to the divisor z; each time through the outer loop, this counter is decremented, and when it reaches zero, it is refilled by moving the value from r back into it.
-,+[                         Read first character and start outer character reading loop
    -[                       Skip forward if character is 0
        >>++++[>++++++++<-]  Set up divisor (32) for division loop
                               (MEMORY LAYOUT: dividend copy remainder divisor quotient zero zero)
        <+<-[                Set up dividend (x minus 1) and enter division loop
            >+>+>-[>>>]      Increase copy and remainder / reduce divisor / Normal case: skip forward
            <[[>+<-]>>+>]    Special case: move remainder back to divisor and increase quotient
            <<<<<-           Decrement dividend
        ]                    End division loop
    ]>>>[-]+                 End skip loop; zero former divisor and reuse space for a flag
    >--[-[<->+++[-]]]<[         Zero that flag unless quotient was 2 or 3; zero quotient; check flag
        ++++++++++++<[       If flag then set up divisor (13) for second division loop
                               (MEMORY LAYOUT: zero copy dividend divisor remainder quotient zero zero)
            >-[>+>>]         Reduce divisor; Normal case: increase remainder
            >[+[<+>-]>+>>]   Special case: increase remainder / move it back to divisor / increase quotient
            <<<<<-           Decrease dividend
        ]                    End division loop
        >>[<+>-]             Add remainder back to divisor to get a useful 13
        >[                   Skip forward if quotient was 0
            -[               Decrement quotient and skip forward if quotient was 1
                -<<[-]>>     Zero quotient and divisor if quotient was 2
            ]<<[<<->>-]>>    Zero divisor and subtract 13 from copy if quotient was 1
        ]<<[<<+>>-]          Zero divisor and add 13 to copy if quotient was 0
    ]                        End outer skip loop (jump to here if ((character minus 1)/32) was not 2 or 3)
    <[-]                     Clear remainder from first division if second division was skipped
    <.[-]                    Output ROT13ed character from copy and clear it
    <-,+                     Read next character
]                            End character reading loop

Portability issues[edit]

Cell size[edit]Partly because Urban Müller did not write a thorough language specification, the many subsequent brainfuck interpreters and compilers have come to use slightly different dialects of brainfuck.
In the classic distribution, the cells are of 8-bit size (cells are bytes), and this is still the most common size. However, to read non-textual data, a brainfuck program may need to distinguish an end-of-file condition from any possible byte value; thus 16-bit cells have also been used. Some implementations have used 32-bit cells, 64-bit cells, or bignum cells with practically unlimited range, but programs that use this extra range are likely to be slow, since storing the value n into a cell requires Ω(n) time as a cell's value may only be changed by incrementing and decrementing.
In all these variants, the , and . commands still read and write data in bytes. In most of them, the cells wrap around, i.e. incrementing a cell which holds its maximal value (with the + command) will bring it to its minimal value and vice versa. The exceptions are implementations which are distant from the underlying hardware, implementations that use bignums, and implementations that try to enforce portability.
Fortunately, it is usually easy to write brainfuck programs that do not ever cause integer wraparound or overflow, and therefore don't depend on cell size. Generally this means avoiding increment of +255 (unsigned 8-bit wraparound), or avoiding overstepping the boundaries of [-128, +127] (signed 8-bit wraparound) (since there are no comparison operators, a program cannot distinguish between a signed and unsigned two's complement fixed-bit-size cell and negativeness of numbers is a matter of interpretation). For more details on integer wraparound, see the Integer overflow article.

Array size[edit]

In the classic distribution, the array has 30,000 cells, and the pointer begins at the leftmost cell. Even more cells are needed to store things like the millionth Fibonacci number, and the easiest way to make the language Turing-complete is to make the array unlimited on the right.
A few implementations[9] extend the array to the left as well; this is an uncommon feature, and therefore portable brainfuck programs do not depend on it.
When the pointer moves outside the bounds of the array, some implementations will give an error message, some will try to extend the array dynamically, some will not notice and will produce undefined behavior, and a few will move the pointer to the opposite end of the array. Some tradeoffs are involved: expanding the array dynamically to the right is the most user-friendly approach and is good for memory-hungry programs, but it carries a speed penalty. If a fixed-size array is used it is helpful to make it very large, or better yet let the user set the size. Giving an error message for bounds violations is very useful for debugging but even that carries a speed penalty unless it can be handled by the operating system's memory protections.

End-of-line code[edit]

Different operating systems (and sometimes different programming environments) use subtly different versions of ASCII. The most important difference is in the code used for the end of a line of text. MS-DOS and Microsoft Windows use a CRLF, i.e. a 13 followed by a 10, in most contexts. UNIX and its descendants (including Linux and Mac OS X) and Amigas use just 10, and older Macs use just 13. It would be unfortunate if brainfuck programs had to be rewritten for different operating systems. Fortunately, a unified standard is easy to find. Urban Müller's compiler and his example programs use 10, on both input and output; so do a large majority of existing brainfuck programs; and 10 is also more convenient to use than CRLF. Thus, brainfuck implementations should make sure that brainfuck programs that assume newline=10 will run properly; many do so, but some do not.
This assumption is also consistent with most of the world's sample code for C and other languages, in that they use '\n', or 10, for their newlines. On systems that use CRLF line endings, the C standard library transparently remaps "\n" to "\r\n" on output and "\r\n" to "\n" on input for streams not opened in binary mode.

End-of-file behavior[edit]

The behavior of the "," command when an end-of-file condition has been encountered varies. Some implementations set the cell at the pointer to 0, some set it to the C constant EOF (in practice this is usually -1), some leave the cell's value unchanged. There is no real consensus; arguments for the three behaviors are as follows.
Setting the cell to 0 avoids the use of negative numbers, and makes it marginally more concise to write a loop that reads characters until EOF occurs. This is a language extension devised by Panu Kalliokoski.
Setting the cell to -1 allows EOF to be distinguished from any byte value (if the cells are larger than bytes), which is necessary for reading non-textual data; also, it is the behavior of the C translation of "," given in Müller's readme file. However, it is not obvious that those C translations are to be taken as normative.
Leaving the cell's value unchanged is the behavior of Urban Müller's brainfuck compiler. This behavior can easily coexist with either of the others; for instance, a program that assumes EOF=0 can set the cell to 0 before each "," command, and will then work correctly on implementations that do either EOF=0 or EOF="no change". It is so easy to accommodate the "no change" behavior that any brainfuck programmer interested in portability should do so.


Many people have created brainfuck equivalents (languages with commands that directly map to brainfuck) or brainfuck derivatives (languages that extend its behavior or map it into new semantic territory).
Some examples:
  • Pi, which maps brainfuck into errors in individual digits of Pi.[citation needed]
  • VerboseFuck, which looks like a traditional programming language, only what appears as parameters or expressions are actually parts of longer commands that cannot be altered.[citation needed]
  • DerpPlusPlus, in which the commands are replaced with words such as 'HERP', 'DERP', 'GIGITY', etc.[10]
  • Ook!, which maps brainfuck's eight commands to two-word permutations of "Ook.", "Ook?", and "Ook!", jokingly designed to be "writable and readable by orang-utans" according to its creator, a reference to the orang-utan Librarian in the novels of Terry Pratchett.[11][12]
  • Ternary, similar in concept to Ook! but instead consisting of permutations of the ASCII characters 0, 1, and 2.[13]
  • BodyFuck, A BrainFuck implementation based on a gesture-controlled system so that programmer's movements are captured by a video camera and converted into the 8 possible characters.[14]
  • JSFuck, JSFuck is an esoteric and educational programming style based on the atomic parts of JavaScript.[15]
However, there are also unnamed minor variants (or dialects), possibly formed as a result of inattention, of which some of the more common are:[citation needed]
  • forbidding, rather than ignoring, any non-command characters in brainfuck programs
  • introducing a comment marker which comments out the rest of the line
  • various alterations of the loop semantics, sometimes destroying Turing completeness
  • requiring a special character to mark the end of the program

armitage archlinux

export MSF_DATABASE_CONFIG=/home/kai/.msf4/database.yml cat  /home/kai/.msf4/database.yml adapter: postgresql  database: databasename  u...