Important Programming Languages for Hackers

Important Programming Languages for Hackers
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After discussing about top 15 operating systems for hackers, today we are here before you to give some information about important programming languages for hackers.
Since programming is essential for hacking because a hacker is someone who breaks a protocol or an application security which is programmed in a certain programming language and to hack an application a hacker needs to understand the logic of that app, find flaw and the exploit it. So a hacker must learn a couple of programming languages to complete his task. So checkout the important programming languages for hackers and where to apply it.

Programming Languages for Hackers

There are lots of computer languages but few are required for hacking purpose because in most cases it depends upon target. There are basically three sections ― Web Hacking and Pentesting, Exploit Writing & Reverse Engineering and each of it requires different coding.

Programming languages for Web Hacking and Pentesting

If you’re interested in web hacking and pentesting, then you must learn learn below mentioned languages at-least basic and intermediate level.
• HTML : Always began with basic basic and HTML is important and most basic markup language. One should know it very well to understand web action, response, structure and logic. HTML is static markup language.
• JavaScript : JavaScript : JavaScript is the most used as client-side programming. You should learn it on high priority mode. Understanding JavaScript code logic can help you find web-apps flaw.
• SQL : SQL is database programming language. Each and every data is stored in database so you should know about database programming and vulnerability as it is the most sensitive part of Web.
• PHP : PHP is most popular dynamic programming language, unlike JavaScript It is server-side programming language. PHP is strongly recommended to every beginner in Hacking and Penetration testing.

Programming Languages for writing Exploits

Exploit writing is advance part of Hacking, It requires higher level of programming language. Every professional hacker must know Exploit Writing, It can be done in any programming language like C, C++, Ruby, Python etc.
• C : The mother of all programming language, C is most used in software creation for Linux, Windows etc… However it is also used for Exploit writing and development. I would prefer to learn C first and recommend to you as well.
• Python : Python is most used language for exploit writing, It is highly recommended you to learn Python Socket Programming because it helps lot learning exploit creation.
 • Ruby : A simple but complicated object-oriented programming language. Ruby is very useful in exploit writing. It is used for meterpreter scripting and do you know Metasploit Framework itself programmed in Ruby.

Programming languages for Reverse Engineering

• Assembly Language : Assembly is low level programming language but very complicated. One can instruct a machine hardware or software using Assembly language. Reverse Engineers uses Assembly language, and if you want to learn Reverse Eng, you must need to learn Assembly language.
Now where should you learn these programming languages ? It’s easy checkout our previous post top 50 websites to learn to code for free.
Finally one more thing, programming languages for hacking also depends upon what program you want to hack, for example; if a web-app in coded in ASP.NET then you can’t hack it using PHP knowledge, although you can understand logic but it will be harder, so always make sure what you wanna hack and in which programming the app is coded.

5 Things to do before dual booting Linux with Windows

5 Things to do before dual booting Linux with Windows
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Do you know why real hackers prefer Linux distro over other OS
We love Linux but most of us want to keep our Windows too. So usually we go for dual booting Linux with Windows to resolve that problem. But if you are an absolute beginner you could have a lot of doubts about dual booting Linux with Windows.
Majority of novice users face some after installation trouble — missing GRUB, GRUB rescue,brick system — while they try to dual boot Linux with Windows. This usually happens because they forget to do some essential settings before dual dual booting Linux.
In this article we are going to list 5 such important things you have to do before dual booting Linux with Windows.

5 Things to do before dual booting Linux with Windows

1. Disable Secure Boot :

This is the most important step you have to do if you are planning to dual boot Linux with Windows — Disable Secure Boot.
Secure Boot helps to make sure that your PC boots using only firmware that is trusted by the manufacturer which usually only supports OS Microsoft Windows 8.1 and higher. And you have to disable Secure Boot to run some  PC graphics cards, hardware, or operating systems such as Linux or previous version of Windows.
So how to disable Secure Boot ? — All you have to do is to open the PC BIOS menu (access this menu by pressing a key during the bootup sequence, such as F1, F2, F12, or Esc — different for different manufactures) and find the Secure Boot setting and set it to Disabled.
If you using Windows 8.1 or Windows 10, then you can disable Secure Boot without entering BIOS. You just have to hold the Shift key while selecting Restart. Go to Troubleshoot > Advanced Options: UEFI Firmware Settings and choose disable option for Secure Boot settings.
**NOTE : In some cases, you may need to change other settings in the firmware, such as enabling a Compatibility Support Module (CSM) to disable Secure Boot. To use a CSM, you may also need to reformat the hard drive using the Master Boot Record (MBR) format, and then reinstall Windows.

2. Disable Fast Startup :

Majority of users forget to disable Fast Boot or Fast Startup before dual booting Linux with Windows — which results system to boot into Windows after Linux insatallation without showing the GRUB menu. Fast Startup is a setting that helps your PC start up faster after shutdown and by default it is enabled in Windows.
How to disable Fast Startup ? —  Unlike Secure Boot you don’t have to enter in BIOS to disable Fast Startup you can do it by going into Power Options in Control Panel like as follows :
  • Open Control Panel change view by “Large icons/Small icons”
  • Click Power Options.
  • Click Choose what the power buttons do.
  • Click Change settings that are currently unavailable.
  • Scroll down to Shutdown settings and uncheck Turn on fast startup.
  • Click Save changes.

3. Create New Partition for Linux :

This is not important but it would be better if you create a separate partition for Linux before installing. Yes I know you can create it during installation process but if you accidentally messes up with wrong partition during installation process may wipe your hard disk. So always createa new partition before dual booting Linux with Windows.

4. Install Windows first :

Sure you can install Linux and Windows in any order but highly recommend that you should install Windows first because setting up the Windows boot loader to load Linux is a challenging task. Because after installation Windows completely overwrites any boot loader that is already there, so if you have Linux installed already you can no longer boot Linux without playing around for hours or reinstalling Grub from a boot CD.
So it would be better and less complicated if you install Linux after Windows because most of the popular Linux distros automatically add Windows installation to its GRUB loader so that you can choose either Linux or Windows during system startup.

5. Live Boot then Install :

An interesting unique feature of popular Linux distributions is that you can try them without being installed.  So if you are new to Linux then you could be confused to choose your first Linux distro — that time just create bootable USB of your Linux distro and live boot it.Live booting helps you to lookup the features of that Linux distro.
Once you installed a Linux distribution along with Windows and you didn’t liked its features — it will be a royal pain in the butt to uninstall that Linux without messing Windows Master Boot Record (MBR). So always live boot to choose right Linux distro for you.


After another news story about a “Harry Potter invisibility cloak”, we take a look at the science behind metamaterials.
A metamaterial cloak bends light around an object
Invisibility has long been employed in works of science fiction and fantasy, from “cloaking devices” on spaceships in the various Star Trek series to Harry Potter’s magic cloak. But physicists are beginning to think they can actually make devices with just these properties.
To achieve the feat of “cloaking” an object, they have developed what are known as “metamaterials”, some of which can bend electromagnetic radiation, such as light, around an object, giving the appearance that it isn’t there at all.
The first examples only worked with long-wavelength radiation such as microwaves.
One small device that made small objects invisible to near-infrared radiation and worked in three dimensions was unveiled by physicists from the UK and Germany earlier this year.
Its creators claimed there was nothing stopping them from scaling their invention up to hide larger objects from visible light – although others had pointed out a flaw in their design.
Now, researchers at Boston University and Tufts University claim that they have come up with an invisibility cloak that works within the terahertz band – the radiation between infrared and radio wavelengths – but could be modified to work with visible light. Intriguingly, it is made out of silk.
Such invisibility cloaks rely on metamaterials, which are a class of material engineered to produce properties that don’t occur naturally.
Light is electromagnetic radiation, made up of perpendicular vibrations of electric and magnetic fields. Natural materials usually only affect the electric component – this is what is behind the optics that we’re all familiar with such as ordinary refraction.
But metamaterials can affect the magnetic component too, expanding the range of interactions that are possible.
The metamaterials used in attempts to make invisibility cloaks are made up of a lattice with the spacing between elements less than the wavelength of the light we wish to ‘bend’.
The silk-based cloak recently announced uses “split-ring resonators” – concentric pairs of rings with splits at opposite ends. 10,000 gold resonators were initially attached to a one-centimetre-square piece of silk.
As silk is not rejected by the human body, it is thought that they could be used to coat internal organs so that surgeons can easily see what lies behind them.
A metamaterial array – split-ring resonators mounted on fiberglass circuit board. Testing on an array like this showed negative refraction of microwave radiation

Another use for metamaterials, potentially with greater scientific applications, is in building a superlens.
Ordinary lenses are restricted by their “diffraction limit”. As David R Smith of the University of California, San Diego explained in Physics World, this means that “the best resolution that is possible corresponds to about half of the incident wavelength of the light that is used to produce the image”.
In 2000, Sir John Pendry of Imperial College London suggested that a metamaterial with a negative refractive index might get around problems such as wave decay and allow imaging of objects only nanometers in size.
Among the first practical applications would likely be using metamaterial lenses to view live viruses and maybe even bits of DNA. In 2005, a thin slab of silver was used to image objects just 60nm across – just over one hundredth the size of a red blood cell.

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