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sound

 sound is pressure waves. it propagates based on pressure difference

longitudinal wave, amplitude of oscillation is in direction of propagation

human hearing range 20-20khz

female higher frequency , so it reaches longer distance 


sound is perceived when vibration in air is detected by ear. ear converts vibration to electrical impulse

impulses are transmitted to brain by nervous system and brain detects pitch,timber and loudness

 

sound travel by compression and rarefaction of air molecules

 

v -= sqrt(T)

T is in kelvin

 

v1/v2=sqrt(T1/T2)

 

at 20 degree 344 m/s

 

measurment

Lp=20 log (p/p0)

p0=refrence pressure 2*10^-5

 which is often considered as the threshold of human hearing (roughly the sound of a mosquito flying 3 m away). 


Lw=10log(w/w0)

w0=10^-12 W


Li=10log(i/i0)

i0=10^-12 W/m^2

 

 

Intensity of sound

unit W/m^2

threshold of hearing intensity = 1 pico W/m^2

 

threshold of pain = 10 W/m^2 , pressure 63 N/m^2

 

phon

loudness of sound intensity in db over threshold of hearing at 1000hz is phon


sone

used to determine increase in loudness

loudness sensation produced by 1000hz sound of 40db  is 1 sone

 

10logL = (p-40) log2 

 p is loudness in phon

 L is loudness in sone


pitch

frequency of sound 

in speech and music, pitch depend on intensity , unit is MEL

1 MEL is tone of 1000 hz and 40db intensity

relation between pitch and frequency is non-linear

higher frequency lower loudness, 

human need higher intensity to listen to low frequency and lower intensity to listen higher frequency


timbre 

tonal characteristic of sound

we distinguish sound based on timbre

our voices also have different timber

timber is defined as per sets of different frequency proportion 


overtones and harmonics

frequencies other than fundamental frequencies

harmonics is integral multiple of fundamental frequency


interval and octaves

ration between two frequencies is interval

interval = f2/f1

octaves = log(f2/f1)/log2


 natural frequency : all sound transducers wit moving parts have frequency based on mass and compliance

 

f=1/[2*PI* sqrt(LC)]

 f=1/2PI * sqrt(K/M)

M=L , K=1/C, X=Q, V=I, F=V

 

diaphragm has natural frequency

lower frequency is attenuated due to spring

higher due to mass 


microphone

sensitivity : how weak sound signal is detected by microphone

o/p of mic (in mv)  for sound pressure ( 0.1 pa)  at 1000 hz

normal pressure has 0.1 pa 

some manufacturer given sensitivity in dbm i.e db milli volt

 

SNR
represented in terms of sound pressure level(SPL)

ratio of db of output (with SPL of 0.1 pa) to output in absence of sound 


bandwidth of audio within +/- 1db is frequency response

40 hz - 15k hz flat responce winthin +- 1db is hifi audio

80-8k hz for normal mic


carbon,crystal,condenser,moving coil,ribbon microphone


distortion

non-linear : distorted harmonics in amplitued

for hq less than 5 , for hifi less than 1


  phase

multiple mic with diffrent path of source 


directivity 


D=E/E0

E = actual o/p

E0 = o/p of omnidirectoinal mic

 

must match output impedance for max power transfer


moving coil mic 

dynamic microphone , based on em induction

Sensitivity 30uv for 0.1 SPL

snr 30db

freq response 60-8k hz for +-1db

distortion less than 5%

omnidirectional

 

robust,heavy,no bias,low cost,25 cm distance

 

use for PA(public address), broadcast

 poor high freq response due to heavy coil


ribbon microphone

use lightweight aluminum ribbon as diaphragm and coil assembly

corrugated ribbon = having grooves like bump

horse shoe magnet


freq response=  20-12k hz

 reflectivity = bidirectional, no signal at 90 degree


lite ribbon so careful

wind will make noise

excellent transient response

no external bias 

high cost

 

crystal microphone 

piezoelectric effect

pressure difference on crystal produce potential difference

 quartz,tourmaline,Rochelle salt, ceramic

rochelle salt : high piezo but temp 50degree moist

quartz and tourmaline :  low piezo

ceramic : suitable as high temp and moisture sustain


Sensitivity 50uv for 0.1 SPL

snr 40db

freq response 100-8k hz for +-1db

distortion less than 1%

omnidirectional

 op impedance 1 Mhz


can be spoken at close range

high impedance

no need bias

long direct sunlight damage crystal

low cost


capacitor or condenser microphone


 

 

 


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sound_pressure

 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Absolute_threshold_of_hearing

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Octave

 

 

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