### sound

sound is pressure waves. it propagates based on pressure difference

longitudinal wave, amplitude of oscillation is in direction of propagation

human hearing range 20-20khz

female higher frequency , so it reaches longer distance

sound is perceived when vibration in air is detected by ear. ear converts vibration to electrical impulse

impulses are transmitted to brain by nervous system and brain detects pitch,timber and loudness

sound travel by compression and rarefaction of air molecules

v -= sqrt(T)

T is in kelvin

v1/v2=sqrt(T1/T2)

at 20 degree 344 m/s

measurment

Lp=20 log (p/p0)

p0=refrence pressure 2*10^-5

which is often considered as the threshold of human hearing (roughly the sound of a mosquito flying 3 m away).

Lw=10log(w/w0)

w0=10^-12 W

Li=10log(i/i0)

i0=10^-12 W/m^2

Intensity of sound

unit W/m^2

threshold of hearing intensity = 1 pico W/m^2

threshold of pain = 10 W/m^2 , pressure 63 N/m^2

phon

loudness of sound intensity in db over threshold of hearing at 1000hz is phon

sone

used to determine increase in loudness

loudness sensation produced by 1000hz sound of 40db  is 1 sone

10logL = (p-40) log2

p is loudness in phon

L is loudness in sone

pitch

frequency of sound

in speech and music, pitch depend on intensity , unit is MEL

1 MEL is tone of 1000 hz and 40db intensity

relation between pitch and frequency is non-linear

higher frequency lower loudness,

human need higher intensity to listen to low frequency and lower intensity to listen higher frequency

timbre

tonal characteristic of sound

we distinguish sound based on timbre

our voices also have different timber

timber is defined as per sets of different frequency proportion

overtones and harmonics

frequencies other than fundamental frequencies

harmonics is integral multiple of fundamental frequency

interval and octaves

ration between two frequencies is interval

interval = f2/f1

octaves = log(f2/f1)/log2

natural frequency : all sound transducers wit moving parts have frequency based on mass and compliance

f=1/[2*PI* sqrt(LC)]

f=1/2PI * sqrt(K/M)

M=L , K=1/C, X=Q, V=I, F=V

diaphragm has natural frequency

lower frequency is attenuated due to spring

higher due to mass

microphone

sensitivity : how weak sound signal is detected by microphone

o/p of mic (in mv)  for sound pressure ( 0.1 pa)  at 1000 hz

normal pressure has 0.1 pa

some manufacturer given sensitivity in dbm i.e db milli volt

SNR
represented in terms of sound pressure level(SPL)

ratio of db of output (with SPL of 0.1 pa) to output in absence of sound

bandwidth of audio within +/- 1db is frequency response

40 hz - 15k hz flat responce winthin +- 1db is hifi audio

80-8k hz for normal mic

carbon,crystal,condenser,moving coil,ribbon microphone

distortion

non-linear : distorted harmonics in amplitued

for hq less than 5 , for hifi less than 1

phase

multiple mic with diffrent path of source

directivity

D=E/E0

E = actual o/p

E0 = o/p of omnidirectoinal mic

must match output impedance for max power transfer

## moving coil mic

dynamic microphone , based on em induction

Sensitivity 30uv for 0.1 SPL

snr 30db

freq response 60-8k hz for +-1db

distortion less than 5%

omnidirectional

robust,heavy,no bias,low cost,25 cm distance

poor high freq response due to heavy coil

## ribbon microphone

use lightweight aluminum ribbon as diaphragm and coil assembly

corrugated ribbon = having grooves like bump

horse shoe magnet

freq response=  20-12k hz

reflectivity = bidirectional, no signal at 90 degree

lite ribbon so careful

wind will make noise

excellent transient response

no external bias

high cost

crystal microphone

piezoelectric effect

pressure difference on crystal produce potential difference

quartz,tourmaline,Rochelle salt, ceramic

rochelle salt : high piezo but temp 50degree moist

quartz and tourmaline :  low piezo

ceramic : suitable as high temp and moisture sustain

Sensitivity 50uv for 0.1 SPL

snr 40db

freq response 100-8k hz for +-1db

distortion less than 1%

omnidirectional

op impedance 1 Mhz

can be spoken at close range

high impedance

no need bias

long direct sunlight damage crystal

low cost

capacitor or condenser microphone

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sound_pressure

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Absolute_threshold_of_hearing

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Octave

### sxhkd volume andbrightness config for dwm on void

xbps-install  sxhkd ------------ mkdir .config/sxhkd cd .config/sxhkd nano/vim sxhkdrc -------------------------------- XF86AudioRaiseVolume         amixer -c 1 -- sset Master 2db+ XF86AudioLowerVolume         amixer -c 1 -- sset Master 2db- XF86AudioMute         amixer -c 1 -- sset Master toggle alt + shift + Escape         pkill -USR1 -x sxhkd XF86MonBrightnessUp          xbacklight -inc 20 XF86MonBrightnessDown          xbacklight -dec 20 ------------------------------------------------------------- amixer -c card_no -- sset Interface volume run alsamixer to find card no and interface names xbps-install -S git git clone https://git.suckless.org/dwm xbps-install -S base-devel libX11-devel libXft-devel libXinerama-devel  vim config.mk # FREETYPEINC = \${X11INC}/freetype2 #comment for non-bsd make clean install   cp config.def.h config.h vim config.h xbps-install -S font-symbola #for emoji on statusbar support     void audio config xbps-i